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GT Podcast – Episode 129 – The Port Authority of NY & NJ – The Port That’s Doing Alot and Doing it Right

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GT Podcast – Episode 129 – The Port Authority of NY & NJ – The Port That’s Doing Alot and Doing it Right

Welcome to another episode of “Logistically Speaking,” the podcast that delves deep into the pulse of global trade and logistics.  Today, we’re excited to welcome a very special guest, Bethann Rooney, the Port Director of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, one of the busiest and most significant ports in the United States.

In this episode, we will uncover why the Port of NYNJ stands out as a powerhouse in the global port community. Bethann will share her insights on how the port not only handles immense logistical challenges but does so with exceptional efficiency and innovation. We’ll explore the strategies that make this port a model of success, emphasizing sustainability and forward-thinking management.

Moreover, we’ll dive into a unique ecological concern—can a small marine organism actually threaten the accessibility of big container ships? This might sound minor, but it has the potential to create major ripples in global shipping logistics.

Stay tuned as we navigate through these fascinating topics, offering you a behind-the-scenes look at the complexities and triumphs of running one of the world’s most influential ports.

For more information on the Port Authority of NY & NJ, visit

Check out more of our GT Podcast – Logistically Speaking Series and more here!

trade recession supply chain freight peak descartes

Freight Audit & Payment Data Insights Can Help Shippers Forecast for Supply Chain Peak Season

Trax reports data insights as essential for reducing risks and optimizing shipping costs this peak season

Data insights are key to a successful 2023 peak season, regardless of transportation mode. Spikes may not be as drastic this year due to the change in consumer spending behavior and initiatives by retailers to spread out the peak season over a longer period of time using discounts and other incentives. However, Trax Technologies (Trax), the global leader in Transportation Spend Management (TSM) solutions, advises supply chain leaders to leverage a data-rich peak season shipping strategy to minimize inefficiencies, risks and costs.

The large amount of data collected by the  freight audit and payment (FAP) process enables Trax to support a portion of the data-driven decisions companies require to estimate costs and optimization opportunities surrounding peak-season forecasts based on historical data and monitor costs during peak season itself.  Effective use of transportation related cost data, including freight, fuel and the multitude of surcharges by mode of transportation and service permit a deep dive on how companies can accurately forecast and optimize shipping before, during, and after peak season.

Transportation management is the process of planning, executing, and optimizing the movement of goods. When successfully executed, a transportation management strategy makes it easier for shippers to achieve an error-free, cost-effective, fast, and smooth flow of products.

Maximizing the value of data, such as freight audit and payment (FAP) data, are a material part of the overall control tower strategy most companies rely on as they improve the end to end governance of processing related to supply chain logistics.  Good data improves visibility, decision-making, and operational efficiency. During peak season, strategies often need to shift to accommodate increased demand and limited capacity, which often impacts the cost of moving goods.

Diversifying the modes of transportation, for example, by choosing rail instead of over-the-road (OTR) options can alleviate some transportation costs. Using data insights from transportation spend tools and knowing that each segment of the logistics industry will experience its peak at different points over the next few months, will prove beneficial in such instances. Backed by data, shippers can be confident in decision-making and easily navigate the remainder of 2023.

fraud workhound shippers logistics management

Shippers Brace for Market Bounce

Containerized cargo volumes moved in the deep-sea container shipping market fell a further 2.5% during the final quarter of 2022, marking the traditionally busiest period of the year as the ‘peak season without a peak’.

Volumes have fallen steadily in the early weeks of 2023 and world trade continues to stumble as economies grapple with persistent inflation and high energy prices, suppressing consumer demand for goods across nearly all economic sectors.

Commenting on the publication of the latest GSF/MDS Transmodal Container Shipping Market Review, James Hookham, Secretary General of Global Shippers Forum said:

“This has stopped being just a supply chain or a shipping issue and shippers and carriers are firmly in the hands of global economic forces which are themselves responding to structural weaknesses in economies and to geopolitical tensions”.

 “Predicting volumes and inventory requirements for the remainder of the year is a leap into the unknown for many shippers, as few but the most experienced will have encountered so varied a mix of influencing factors”.

With interest rates still high and Central Banks hinting they could go higher still, the inflationary effects of the Covid crisis and the crunch on consumer spending is lingering into the second quarter this year.

On the demand side, many carriers and service providers are anticipating a recovery in demand in the second half of the year, but this is more in hope than expectation – there are few economic signals to support such optimism.

The arrival of new shipping capacity, an apparent questioning of the benefits of shipping alliances and an inevitable reduction in utilization of vessel space, is also changing the shape of the supply side of the equation in container shipping.

Shippers have undoubtedly benefitted from the dramatic fall in spot rates over the past nine months, with costs on many routes back to pre-Covid levels. But weak demand for their core products will be of more concern to shippers than the cost of their shipment. Whilst wary of the speed at which demand could recover – as seen in 2020 – many shippers are bracing for a bounce in rates that may not arrive for some time.

Shippers have also been enjoying have seen a sharp improvement in port call predictability with the number of scheduled calls actually made by vessels significantly improved over Q3 2022. This is the first time since in the reviews started in 2020 that the Service Quality Indicators have all been positive, albeit from a low base.

tariff GSF shippers carbon

Enhanced CSX Carbon Calculator Helps Shippers Achieve Sustainability Goals

CSX  today announced the launch of an enhanced carbon emissions reduction calculator that will help companies achieve their supply chain sustainability objectives by converting from truck to rail.

The enhanced tool offers freight shippers increased insight into the environmental benefits of rail through analysis of customer-specific data to calculate potential greenhouse gas emissions saved by choosing rail over trucks.

The new version of the Carbon Calculator is available to customers who use the ShipCSX online platform. The tool enables carload freight shippers to generate carbon savings analyses based on their historical shipment data; to view year-to-date totals and year-to-year trends; and to apply variables that provide additional insight for weighing carbon emission impacts when making supply chain decisions.

The Carbon Calculator draws on government and third-party studies of greenhouse gas emission factors of different transportation modes to calculate how much emissions are reduced when shipping by rail versus truck. The calculator incorporates freight type, distance and volume into its methodology.

Future versions of the Carbon Calculator will include the ability to calculate emissions savings on intermodal container shipments as well as advanced features that help companies evaluate supply-chain decisions that can further reduce their carbon footprint.

To use the enhanced calculator, customers must register at

About CSX

CSX, based in Jacksonville, Florida, is a premier transportation company. It provides rail, intermodal and rail-to-truck transload services and solutions to customers across a broad array of markets, including energy, industrial, construction, agricultural, and consumer products. For nearly 200 years, CSX has played a critical role in the nation’s economic expansion and industrial development. Its network connects every major metropolitan area in the eastern United States, where nearly two-thirds of the nation’s population resides. It also links more than 240 short-line railroads and more than 70 ocean, river and lake ports with major population centers and farming towns alike.

food Software helps manage shipments of export cargo and import cargo in international trade.

Trax Named Food Logistics’ Top Software & Technology Providers Award Honoree

Trax’s transportation spend management solutions ensure cost and emissions efficiency and consistent cold-storage quality for food shippers

Trax Technologies, the global leader in Transportation Spend Management (TSM) solutions, today announced the company’s recognition as a Food Logistics Top Software & Technology Providers Award recipient. The award celebrates technology providers that ensure a safe, efficient, and reliable global food and beverage supply chain.

Enterprise shippers depend on the reliable data that Trax provides from its innovative software, which is critical to smart decision-making within the supply chain. Helping with increased reliability and resiliency of the transportation network, Trax’s cold-storage and food customers can see issues before they arise.

Recipients of this year’s award will be profiled in Food Logistics’ Dec. 2022 print issue. Visit to view the complete list of Top Software & Technology Providers and learn more about other Food Logistics’ awards.

About Trax Technologies

Trax is the global leader in Transportation Spend Management solutions. Trax elevates traditional Freight Audit and Payment with a combination of industry-leading cloud-based technology solutions and expert services to help enterprises with the world’s more complex supply chains better manage and control their global transportation costs and drive enterprise-wide efficiency and value. With a global footprint spanning North America, Latin America, Asia, and Europe, Trax delivers data-based visibility and insights, higher savings, and better control of transportation spend for shippers and 3PLs/4PLs of all sizes.

tariff GSF shippers carbon

Why Cargo Owners Should Be Checking For Bugs in Boxes 

Invasive pests transferred between countries in intermodal containers have potentially devastating consequences for agriculture and the natural environment.  Global Shippers Forum (GSF) is alerting shippers to the crucial role they play in tightening biosecurity in the container supply chain at the packing point.

While there are various sources of potential pest contamination throughout the global freight supply chain, all involved need to take measures to minimize the potentially devastating consequences that unwanted invasive pests can deliver. The Global Shippers Forum (GSF) represents cargo owners which export and import all manner of commodities transported in seaborne containers and urges a greater awareness of the threat. 

Hosted by the UK Government on 19th and 20th September a specialized group of trade bodies, shipping industry representatives and national plant protection and bio-security agencies will meet at the International Workshop on Reducing the Introduction of Pests Through the Sea Container Pathway*. GSF will be representing shippers to ensure that the scope and limits of their responsibilities are clearly defined.  James Hookham its Director will be speaking during the opening session.  

Inspections of containers arriving at borders carried out by national biosecurity agencies over the past few years suggest that the number of containers and cargoes infested by pests may be greater than feared. National environment and agricultural ministries have been working through the UN’s International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) to tackle this issue and the London workshop has been convened to consider options for regulating the cleanliness of sea containers and an International Standard for Phytosanitary Measure for the cleanliness of intermodal containers could be in prospect. 

GSF has been monitoring and influencing these developments since 2018 when it was invited to join an IPPC Task Force set up to examine the threat to plant health posed by pest-contamination of sea containers.  The Task Force’s report at the end of 2021 set out a range of regulatory options for its parent body, the Commission for Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) to consider. Crucially, it also warned that implementation of new mandatory requirements could impose significant new costs and risks to the fluidity of the international movement of containers.  GSF has been clear in its opposition to any new rules applying indiscriminately to every container shipment, urging that controls and resources be targeted instead on high-risk trade corridors and specific pest threats.

Global Shippers Forum (GSF)

Global Shippers Forum is the global business organization speaking up for exporters and importers as cargo owners in international supply chains and trade procedures. Its members are national and regional shippers’ associations representing hundreds of manufacturing, wholesaling, and retailing businesses in over 20 countries across five continents. GSF works for safe, competitively efficient, and environmentally sustainable global trade and logistics.


Reducing emissions requires efficient supply chain solutions

In November 2021, the United States Department of State and the United States Executive Office of the President released a new long-term strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The report laid out the ambitious goal of achieving net-zero emissions no later than 2050, which will require significant change, adaptation, and transformation across almost every sector, and in particular the manufacturing and transport industries.

These ambitious targets build on last year’s summit, where the US pledged to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 50-52% in 2030, in line with the European Council’s requirements. According to experts around the world, these new, increased goals are essential when it comes to meeting objectives set for the middle of the 21st century.


Around the world, the food and beverage sector is responsible for about one third of all greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to their complex supply chains. Without taking significant action to address supply chain emissions, meeting emissions targets will be a challenge. Mitigation efforts will require a significant shift in the way supply chain issues are considered within the sector, particularly when it comes to agriculture and land use.

The largest direct source of greenhouse gas emissions, is the US transportation sector, having overtaken the power sector back in 2015. It is responsible for 29% of all US greenhouse gas emissions, according to an EPA report released in 2021. As part of the drive towards Net Zero, President Joe Biden signed an Executive Order on Strengthening American Leadership in Clean Cars and Trucks in December 2021. This set a target of 50% of cars and light trucks to be zero-emissions by 2030 and directed NHTSA to finalize emissions targets for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles by December 2022.

These strategies, targets, and directives are a clear indication that the US approach to CO2 emissions is hardening, and that decisions are being made that will have significant impacts on those responsible for supply chains.

However, reducing emissions is not solely linked to vehicles, and clean technologies and lower-emission cars and trucks cannot be the only solution, even in the transportation sector. A huge part of achieving these ambitious goals will come from significant improvement in efficiency throughout the entire logistics process, including, of course, the decisive areas of warehouse and transport management. Warehouse management solutions (WMS) and transport management solutions (TMS) have become key elements that not only improve general efficiency, but are also essential to creating a more effective and seamless supply chain process, optimizing transportation and, in turn, reducing emissions.

Warehouse management solutions

The warehouse is the heart of the entire logistics system, and its management has a direct impact on the rest of the links in the supply chain including, unsurprisingly, on transportation. An effective WMS not only guarantees more efficient use of physical warehouse space but also optimizes the movement of goods and materials inside the warehouse, ensuring cost savings and reduction of emissions right from the outset. But a WMS is not just about managing what goes on in the warehouse itself. It improves the organization of transportation and creates significant improvements in this area by synchronizing warehouse operations with arrivals and departures of carriers, transferring the newfound efficiency of the warehouse to transport, and onwards to the entire supply chain.

Transportation Management Solutions

Increased focus on emissions and environmental improvements reinforces the strategic value of TMS tools as well. According to analysis by Gartner and Supply Chain Digest, among others, TMS tools can offer immediate savings of anywhere between 15% (for the annual transport costs) and 30% (for personnel and management). Greater efficiency also undoubtedly has an effect on the reduction of emissions throughout the entire logistics chain. The two-pronged benefits of using technology to improve your supply chain operations is a decisive element for companies in the immediate future.

Transportation and Climate Initiative

Many leading companies looking to take proactive and practical steps towards decarbonization participate in the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI), a scheme similar to the European Lean & Green platform. The TCI is a regional collaboration of 13 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states and the District of Columbia that seeks to improve transportation, develop the clean energy economy, and reduce carbon emissions from the transportation sector.

As with the Lean & Green initiative in Europe, many companies who operate under the jurisdiction of the TCI take advantage of Generix’s WMS and TMS solutions to achieve greater efficiencies in warehouse and transportation management; solutions without which it would be extremely difficult to reduce and ameliorate the energy costs of transport.

In short, logistics is in the process of a significant transformation to meet the demands of an increasingly demanding market, as well as to address environmental targets and requirements. There are a number of technological tools already standard in the world of logistics that have completely changed the productivity of the sector, and which will be essential to be able to take the next steps towards productivity, efficiency, and decarbonization.

For the manufacturing and transport industries, the path to Net Zero does not have to be a painful one. The tools and processes that are vital for reducing emissions also come with significant benefits and improvements for productivity and efficiency.

Supply chains are central to the fight against climate change. Decarbonization and emission reduction efforts also help improve sustainability, as well as making supply chains more resilient for the future.

If you want to reduce your carbon footprint through our solutions, contact us!

Generix Group North America provides a series of solutions within our Supply Chain Hub product suite to create efficiencies across an entire supply chain. Our solutions are in use around the world and our experience is second-to-none. We invite you to contact us to learn more.

trade war

Update: Who Is Winning The U.S.-China Trade War?

In 2018, U.S. President Donald J. Trump initiated a trade war with China. The trade war, which has never officially ended, continues to this day. Neither side appears to be winning and many bystander countries are benefiting as a result of this international dispute. 

In some cases, these countries are seeing a number of positive impacts, including an increase in trade exports. This article will take a look at where the U.S.-China trade war currently stands and what outcomes have occurred as a result.


An end to globalization?

One of the main concerns springing from the U.S.-China trade war was that it would damage the international economy and bring an end to globalization. Specifically, because the United States and China are the two largest global economies. However, even a global pandemic could not totally destroy the integrated economies of the world. 

Recent research demonstrates that U.S. tariffs on Chinese goods resulted in higher import prices in the U.S. and the Chinese retaliatory measures ended up harming Chinese importers. In the end, two-way trade between the U.S. and China dried up. However, contrary to speculators’ fears, globalization has not disappeared and many bystander countries benefited from the trade war through increased exports.

Explaining Bystander Country Growth

It seems unsurprising that global participants would fill the void after China was axed from the U.S. trade pipeline. Countries like Mexico, Malaysia, and Vietnam benefited the most. However, more surprisingly is that global trade, in products affected by the trade war, increased 3% relative to products not impacted by tariffs. So, not only did imports from other countries increase, but overall global trade increased.

One possible theory is that countries saw the trade war as a chance to expand their global market presence. China, which utilized a zero-COVID policy over the past few years, saw lags in its trade activity as a result. These gaps in global trade gave countries the opportunity to invest in additional trade opportunities or the chance to mobilize larger portions of their workforce. These changes enabled countries to increase exports without increasing prices.

Another theory explaining the growth is how third countries were able to export more to the U.S. and China. This change shrank their per-unit costs of production and economies of scale thus allowing them to offer more products for lower prices. Countries, where global export prices are declining, are also those where the largest increases in global exports are occurring.

Country Trade Growth Factors

One might wonder, what more could be done to take advantage of these types of trade wars in the future? Some countries increased exports overall. Others reallocated their trade by shifting their exports from other countries to the U.S. Finally, in some cases countries saw an overall decrease because they sold less overall. Two primary factors emerged to explain these patterns.

Deep Trade Agreements

Deep trade agreements (agreements that go beyond just tariff regulation, but include other behind-the-border protections) were significant. In a “deep” trade agreement fundamental economic integration provisions, like tariff preferences, export taxes, investments, and intellectual property rights are combined with other provisions. The first layer of these provisions usually supports economic integration like rules of origin and anti-dumping and countervailing duties. Then, other provisions that promote social welfare, like environmental laws or labor market regulations are added in, on top. 

Trade agreements beyond just tariff preferences and other fundamental provisions help minimize fixed costs of expanding into foreign markets. Countries with these types of agreements had the necessary security to expand trade as the U.S. and China vie for economic supremacy.

Accumulated Foreign Direct Investment

Deep trade agreements weren’t the only important factor though. Accumulated foreign direct investment was also significant. Foreign direct investment is different from other types of investment because FDI occurs when an investor based in a home country acquires an asset in a foreign nation with the intent to manage that asset. Many areas that are undergoing increased social, political, and economic connections to global markets also see increased direct foreign investment.

Foreign direct investment is significant because it helps manage the utilization of scarce global resources. Poor countries often lack the necessary capital to build the necessary economic infrastructure. By receiving these foreign funds, which are managed from abroad, countries can better develop their economies.

Supply chains interacted like dominoes

Analysts at the Peterson Institute for International Economics predicted as far back as 2016 that U.S. tariffs would cause widespread production shifts in a “daisy chain.” In essence, when U.S. tariffs hit China, companies moved production to a third country. This move then caused other activities in third countries to be shuffled. 

Analysts have noted that the complexity of modern supply chains makes predicting these outcomes difficult to predict. However, countries that were more integrated into the global economy seemed more likely to land firm relocations.

No Reshoring of U.S. Jobs

Unfortunately, relocations did not occur in the United States. Supporters of the trade war often hoped that it would result in the reshoring of U.S. jobs. Others were supportive because it demonstrated a way to hold China accountable for its deleterious authoritarianism. 

In any case, the trade war did not result in massive amounts of jobs returning to the United States as many had hoped – although admittedly this is something that’s difficult to measure. Overall, third countries were the main winners as they replaced Chinese imports with their own.

Bystander countries benefited the most, especially those with a high degree of trade integration. A good business plan can help a business navigate trying times. In the same sense, countries that adopted a strategy for global trade shakeups came out on top. Despite worries of an end to globalization, the trade war seems to have actually diversified trade and spread opportunities to other countries. In reality, the trade war has helped push us towards a world where trade is not monopolized by the U.S. and China.


Initially, we asked who was winning the U.S.-China trade war? The answer is clear: third countries with deep connections to international partners. This means countries that were able to take advantage of supply-chain shakeups and countries that already had existing trade agreements and large amounts of foreign investment. 

For the United States, and China, it appears that the trade war did not result in any major gains. Some analysts believe that it does more harm than good. The U.S. did not see any increased reshoring of jobs and economic activities. Really, the U.S. replaced Chinese imports with imports from alternative countries


Surge in Production Costs May Put Pressure on U.S. Food Industry

The food and beverage industry has many growth drivers but also some constraints. As a non-cyclical industry, there is a constant demand for food, which helps drive some growth in the industry.  Profit margins in food production and processing, however, are becoming thinner and are facing some pressure due to the highly competitive nature of this industry. Companies are facing higher commodity price volatility, disease outbreaks and weather events, which may well affect profitability and growth.

While the U.S. food and beverage industry has fared well in comparison to worldwide industry performance during the pandemic, and insolvencies have been lower than expected, due to a surge in U.S. food production costs, companies are seeing tighter margins even as higher prices are being passed on to consumers. The U.S. food and beverage output is still forecast to grow by 1% in 2022 – much less growth than seen in the past several years, however.

The recent wave of the Omicron variant felt around the globe may affect plans for a smooth path in 2022. Many businesses, specifically those in hospitality and food service subsectors, are still struggling to absorb the shocks from the beginning of the pandemic, according to a recent food industry trends report from Atradius. The absence of tourism and travel at the height of the pandemic and new variants of COVID-19, are cause for a slow rebound to the economic recovery in that subsector.

The U.S. is currently seeing the highest food price inflation since 2008 and food prices are expected to continue to rise in 2022, at least until the supply chain issues are resolved. As government subsidies disappear, pressures will mount for the U.S. consumer.


-Beverages: A more positive prognosis this year, with solid growth and sufficient liquidity. Beverages have seen much innovation and product development, adding to its positive performance.

-Meat and Dairy: Remains neutral as higher operating and production costs remain high and impact profit margins.

-Food Services: This sector will be the slowest to rebound from the effects of the pandemic and is much more susceptible to future Covid-19 variants.

Trends for 2022

Food will always be a necessity and consumers enjoy cooking at home, as well as dining at restaurants. Demand will always be high in the food industry, however, it is also highly competitive. Healthy and innovative products are key for food companies and restaurants to remain competitive in this landscape.

During the pandemic, food delivery skyrocketed, and this trend will persist in 2022. Options for plant-based and health-focused alternatives continue to increase as consumers demand more choices in this area. Raw material costs and lack of skilled employees will continue to be an issue for the sector in the coming year.

The credit risk assessment remains fair over the next 12 months (for nonpayment and insolvencies). Businesses that are able to effectively pass on price increases while maintaining enough labor and production capacity to meet ongoing demand will find themselves better situated in the coming months.

Sharon Benfer is a Senior Risk Underwriter at Atradius


U.S. Wheat Prices to Fall in 2022, Global Supply to Remain Adequate

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Wheat – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The average annual wheat price in the U.S. is forecast to drop by 2% y-o-y to $250 per tonne in 2022, falling on reduced domestic consumption coupled with stable supply worldwide. The market balance will be buoyed by production gains in Argentina and the EU that will offset decreasing output in Brazil and Paraguay.

Based on the World Bank’s and USDA data, IndexBox predicts that the average annual price for Hard red winter wheat in the U.S. will drop by 2% y-o-y to $250 per tonne in 2022. Reducing domestic consumption is the key reason for that decrease, as feed use of wheat is expected to fall due to relatively high prices compared to other grains. The EU and Ukraine are to follow the same trend.

The global wheat supply will remain stable in 2022, as boosting production in Argentina and the EU should compensate for the expected decreases in Brazil and Paraguay and lower Russia’s beginning stocks. Argentina’s production is to surpass a record 20.5M tonnes this year.

In 2022, projected global trade will decline to 204M due to reduced supplies from the U.S. and Russia. American wheat remains uncompetitive in foreign markets, while the Russian government imposes quotas on export volumes to ensure sufficient domestic supplies and stabilize domestic food prices. Rising supplies from the EU could only partially offset that drop in the world’s exports.

Global Wheat Exports in 2020

Global wheat exports were estimated at 199M tonnes in 2020, increasing by 13% compared with the previous year’s figure. In value terms, supplies rose markedly to $45.3B.

The shipments of the five major wheat exporters, namely Russia, the U.S., Canada, France and Ukraine, represented more than half of global supplies. Australia (10M tonnes) ranks next in terms of total exports with a 5.2% share, followed by Argentina (5.1%) and Germany (4.7%). The following exporters – Kazakhstan (5.4M tonnes), Poland (4.7M tonnes), Romania (4.3M tonnes), Lithuania (4M tonnes) and Bulgaria (3.2M tonnes) – together made up 11% of the total volume.

In value terms, Russia ($7.9B), the U.S. ($6.3B) and Canada ($6.3B) constituted the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2020, with a combined 45% share of global supplies. These countries were followed by France, Ukraine, Australia, Germany, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Lithuania and Bulgaria, which together accounted for a further 44%.

Top Largest Wheat Importers in 2020

The purchases of the twelve significant wheat importers, namely Indonesia, Turkey, Egypt, Nigeria, China, Italy, Algeria, the Philippines, Brazil, Bangladesh, Morocco and Japan, represented more than a third of the total volume. The Netherlands (4.3M tonnes) occupied a minor share of global imports.

In value terms, the largest wheat importing markets worldwide were Egypt ($2.7B), Indonesia ($2.6B) and Turkey ($2.3B), together accounting for 16% of international purchases. These countries were followed by China, Nigeria, Italy, Algeria, the Philippines, Japan, Brazil, Morocco, Bangladesh and the Netherlands, which together accounted for a further 34%.

Source: IndexBox Platform