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Asia’s Beeswax Market Is Estimated at $206M in 2018, an Increase of 3.4%

beeswax

Asia’s Beeswax Market Is Estimated at $206M in 2018, an Increase of 3.4%

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Asia – Beeswax – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the beeswax market in Asia amounted to $206M in 2018, increasing by 3.4% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The total market indicated a moderate increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +0.7% over the last eleven years.

Consumption By Country in Asia

The country with the largest volume of beeswax consumption was India (26K tonnes), accounting for 64% of total consumption. Moreover, beeswax consumption in India exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest consumer, Turkey (4.9K tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by South Korea (3.7K tonnes), with a 9.1% share.

In India, beeswax consumption expanded at an average annual rate of +2.6% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Turkey (+1.9% per year) and South Korea (-1.1% per year).

In value terms, India ($127M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Turkey ($42M). It was followed by South Korea.

The countries with the highest levels of beeswax per capita consumption in 2018 were South Korea (73 kg per 1000 persons), Turkey (59 kg per 1000 persons) and Malaysia (39 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of beeswax per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Japan, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in Asia

Driven by increasing demand for beeswax in Asia, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +0.2% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 42K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in Asia

In 2018, approx. 50K tonnes of beeswax were produced in Asia; remaining stable against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 when production volume increased by 5.6% against the previous year. Over the period under review, beeswax production reached its peak figure volume in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, beeswax production stood at $292M in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, beeswax production continues to indicate prominent growth. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 25% against the previous year. Over the period under review, beeswax production attained its peak figure level at $392M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country in Asia

India (24K tonnes) remains the largest beeswax producing country in Asia, comprising approx. 49% of total production. Moreover, beeswax production in India exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest producer, China (11K tonnes), twofold. Turkey (4.5K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total production with a 9% share.

In India, beeswax production increased at an average annual rate of +2.0% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: China (+0.5% per year) and Turkey (+1.4% per year).

Exports in Asia

The exports totaled 14K tonnes in 2018, surging by 8.1% against the previous year. The total exports indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +6.7% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beeswax exports increased by +9.1% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 when exports increased by 26% year-to-year. The volume of exports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, beeswax exports amounted to $79M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, beeswax exports continue to indicate a resilient expansion. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 34% y-o-y. The level of exports peaked at $80M in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

In 2018, China (9.7K tonnes) represented the major exporter of beeswax, committing 69% of total exports. It was distantly followed by Malaysia (1,970 tonnes) and Viet Nam (1,494 tonnes), together committing a 25% share of total exports. India (339 tonnes) held a little share of total exports.

Exports from China increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Viet Nam (+19.6%), India (+15.2%) and Malaysia (+8.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Viet Nam emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in Asia, with a CAGR of +19.6% from 2007-2018. China (+30 p.p.), Viet Nam (+9.2 p.p.), Malaysia (+8.5 p.p.) and India (+1.9 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the total exports, while the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, China ($61M) remains the largest beeswax supplier in Asia, comprising 77% of total beeswax exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Viet Nam ($12M), with a 15% share of total exports. It was followed by India, with a 2% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value in China stood at +10.9%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Viet Nam (+24.8% per year) and India (+15.5% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The beeswax export price in Asia stood at $5,595 per tonne in 2018, going up by 1.8% against the previous year. The export price indicated a buoyant increase from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +4.4% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beeswax export price decreased by -5.3% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2012 when the export price increased by 20% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the export prices for beeswax reached their maximum at $5,910 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, export prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Viet Nam ($7,731 per tonne), while Malaysia ($670 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in Asia

In 2018, approx. 5.5K tonnes of beeswax were imported in Asia; stabilizing at the previous year. Overall, beeswax imports continue to indicate remarkable growth. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when imports increased by 40% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

In value terms, beeswax imports totaled $28M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, beeswax imports continue to indicate a prominent increase. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when imports increased by 47% year-to-year. Over the period under review, beeswax imports reached their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

India represented the major importing country with an import of around 2.2K tonnes, which resulted at 40% of total imports. Japan (889 tonnes) took the second position in the ranking, followed by China (557 tonnes), Turkey (405 tonnes) and South Korea (357 tonnes). All these countries together took approx. 40% share of total imports. Pakistan (186 tonnes), Thailand (181 tonnes) and Taiwan, Chinese (93 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

India was also the fastest-growing in terms of the beeswax imports, with a CAGR of +23.1% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, China (+20.6%), Pakistan (+14.2%), Turkey (+9.8%), Thailand (+5.9%) and Taiwan, Chinese (+1.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Japan experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, South Korea (-2.4%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. India (+36 p.p.), China (+8.9 p.p.), Turkey (+4.7 p.p.), Pakistan (+2.6 p.p.), Japan (+1.6 p.p.) and Thailand (+1.5 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the total imports, while South Korea saw its share reduced by -2% from 2007 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest beeswax importing markets in Asia were Japan ($8.2M), China ($5.5M) and South Korea ($2.9M), with a combined 60% share of total imports.

China recorded the highest growth rate of imports, among the main importing countries over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The beeswax import price in Asia stood at $5,033 per tonne in 2018, remaining stable against the previous year. Over the last eleven years, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.5%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 when the import price increased by 35% y-o-y. In that year, the import prices for beeswax attained their peak level of $5,431 per tonne. From 2015 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for beeswax remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was China ($9,919 per tonne), while India ($1,098 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by South Korea, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

tomato

COMMERCE SUSPENDS INVESTIGATION INTO FRESH TOMATO IMPORTS FROM MEXICO

On Sept. 19, Commerce finalized an agreement with Mexican tomato growers to suspend the AD investigation of fresh tomatoes from Mexico, halting the process for imposing antidumping duties on tomatoes from Mexico

“Today’s successful outcome validates the administration’s strong and smart approach to negotiating trade deals,” Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross said.  “The department’s action brought the Mexican growers to the negotiating table and led to a result that protects U.S. tomato producers from unfair trade. It also removes major uncertainties for the Mexican growers and their workers.”

The suspension agreement completely eliminates the injurious effects of unfairly priced Mexican tomatoes, prevents price suppression and undercutting, and eliminates substantially all dumping, while allowing Commerce to audit up to 80 Mexican tomato producers and U.S. sellers per quarter, or more with good cause. 

In addition, the agreement also closes loopholes from past suspension agreements that permitted sales below the reference prices in certain circumstances, and includes an inspection mechanism to prevent the importation of low-quality, poor-condition tomatoes from Mexico, which can have price-suppressive effects on the market. 

The probe came from a Nov. 14, 2018, request from the Florida Tomato Exchange.

pumpkin

U.S. Imports of Pumpkins From Mexico Account for One-Third of Global Trade

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Pumpkin (Squash And Gourds) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

In 2018, global pumpkin trade is estimated at 1.5M tonnes. The U.S. remains the world’s largest and fasted-growing importer (508K tonnes in 2018), which accounts for 34% of global imports, while Mexico holds a 86% share in U.S. pumpkin imports.

The global pumpkin market revenue amounted to $22.6B in 2018, leveling off at the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 with an increase of 6.9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the global pumpkin market reached its peak figure level in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of pumpkin consumption in 2018 were China (7.9M tonnes), India (5.9M tonnes) and Russia (1.3M tonnes), together accounting for 53% of global consumption. These countries were followed by the U.S., Iran, Ukraine, Italy, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Egypt, which together accounted for a further 18%.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pumpkin consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Indonesia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, India ($6.1B), China ($4.7B) and the U.S. ($1.1B) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 53% share of the global market. Russia, Italy, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Egypt, Iran and Indonesia lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 14%.

The countries with the highest levels of pumpkin per capita consumption in 2018 were Ukraine (15,778 kg per 1000 persons), Iran (13,096 kg per 1000 persons) and Russia (8,784 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pumpkin per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Indonesia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for pumpkin worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +2.0% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 32M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 28M tonnes of pumpkin (squash and gourds) were produced worldwide; picking up by 2.8% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.6% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 2.8% y-o-y. In that year, global pumpkin production attained its peak volume and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term. The general positive trend in terms of pumpkin output was largely conditioned by a measured increase of the harvested area and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

In value terms, pumpkin production amounted to $22.3B in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 6.9% y-o-y. In that year, global pumpkin production reached its peak level of $22.5B, leveling off in the following year.

Production By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of pumpkin production in 2018 were China (7.9M tonnes), India (5.9M tonnes) and Russia (1.2M tonnes), with a combined 53% share of global production. These countries were followed by Iran, the U.S., Spain, Ukraine, Mexico, Italy, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Turkey, which together accounted for a further 21%.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pumpkin production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Indonesia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Harvested Area 2007-2018

In 2018, the global harvested area of pumpkin (squash and gourds) amounted to 2B ha, increasing by 2.1% against the previous year. The harvested area increased at an average annual rate of +2.0% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when harvested area increased by 2.1% year-to-year. In that year, the global pumpkin harvested area attained its peak level and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Yield 2007-2018

Global average pumpkin yield amounted to 14 kg per ha in 2018, flattening at the previous year. In general, the pumpkin yield continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when yield increased by 0.7% against the previous year. In that year, the average pumpkin yield attained its peak level and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports totaled 1.6M tonnes in 2018, increasing by 5.7% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.9% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2016 with an increase of 14% year-to-year. The global exports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, pumpkin exports stood at $1.5B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +3.3% over the period from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 14% against the previous year. The global exports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Mexico (508K tonnes) and Spain (352K tonnes) represented the major exporters of pumpkin (squash and gourds)around the world, together achieving 55% of total exports. It was distantly followed by New Zealand (81K tonnes), creating a 5.1% share of total exports. The U.S. (67K tonnes), Turkey (67K tonnes), Morocco (51K tonnes), Portugal (51K tonnes), the Netherlands (41K tonnes), France (36K tonnes), China (34K tonnes), Canada (33K tonnes) and Italy (33K tonnes) held a minor share of total exports.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest pumpkin markets worldwide were Mexico ($483M), Spain ($403M) and Morocco ($64M), with a combined 64% share of global exports. These countries were followed by the U.S., the Netherlands, France, Italy, New Zealand, Turkey, Portugal, China and Canada, which together accounted for a further 24%.

In terms of the main exporting countries, China experienced the highest growth rate of exports, over the last five-year period, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average pumpkin export price amounted to $939 per tonne, growing by 1.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the pumpkin export price, however, continues to indicate a slight drop. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when the average export price increased by 15% against the previous year. The global export price peaked at $1,017 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was the Netherlands ($1,442 per tonne), while Portugal ($449 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

Global imports totaled 1.5M tonnes in 2018, picking up by 19% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.2% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations over the period under review. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when imports increased by 19% year-to-year. In that year, global pumpkin imports reached their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, pumpkin imports amounted to $1.4B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 5.4% against the previous year. In that year, global pumpkin imports attained their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

The U.S. was the key importing country with an import of around 508K tonnes, which amounted to 34% of total imports. It was distantly followed by France (159K tonnes), Germany (111K tonnes), the UK (109K tonnes), Japan (103K tonnes) and the Netherlands (68K tonnes), together creating a 37% share of total imports. Canada (55K tonnes), Russia (48K tonnes), Singapore (38K tonnes), Belgium (30K tonnes) and Italy (25K tonnes) occupied a minor share of total imports.

The U.S. was also the fastest-growing in terms of the pumpkin (squash and gourds) imports, with a CAGR of +7.8% from 2013 to 2018. At the same time, Germany (+4.8%), Russia (+4.0%), Canada (+3.4%), France (+1.6%) and the UK (+1.3%) displayed positive paces of growth. The Netherlands, Singapore, Japan and Italy experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Belgium (-4.4%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of the U.S. (+11 p.p.) and Germany (+1.5 p.p.) increased significantly, the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the U.S. ($414M) constitutes the largest market for imported pumpkin (squash and gourds) worldwide, comprising 30% of global imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($172M), with a 12% share of global imports. It was followed by Germany, with a 11% share.

In the U.S., pumpkin imports expanded at an average annual rate of +3.7% over the period from 2013-2018. The remaining importing countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: France (-1.5% per year) and Germany (+2.5% per year).

Import Prices by Country

The average pumpkin import price stood at $921 per tonne in 2018, declining by -11.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the pumpkin import price continues to indicate a moderate reduction. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 an increase of 18% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for pumpkin (squash and gourds) reached their maximum at $1,067 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Belgium ($1,463 per tonne), while Singapore ($544 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Italy, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

vegetable wax

Global Vegetable Waxes Market – Brazil Emerged As the World’s Largest Supplier, With a 45% Share of Total Exports

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Vegetable Waxes – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global vegetable waxes market revenue amounted to $536M in 2018, increasing by 3.7% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

Consumption By Country

China (18K tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of vegetable waxes consumption, comprising approx. 17% of total consumption. Moreover, vegetable waxes consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest consumer, India (7.2K tonnes), twofold. Russia (3.2K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total consumption with a 3.2% share.

In China, vegetable waxes consumption expanded at an average annual rate of +1.8% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: India (+0.5% per year) and Russia (-4.0% per year).

In value terms, China ($94M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by India ($38M). It was followed by the U.S..

In 2018, the highest levels of vegetable waxes per capita consumption was registered in Australia (78 kg per 1000 persons), followed by Russia (22 kg per 1000 persons), Pakistan (16 kg per 1000 persons) and Japan (16 kg per 1000 persons), while the world average per capita consumption of vegetable waxes was estimated at 13 kg per 1000 persons.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of the vegetable waxes per capita consumption in Australia stood at +8.8%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Russia (-4.4% per year) and Pakistan (-5.3% per year).

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the global production of vegetable waxes totaled 98K tonnes, growing by 3.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, vegetable waxes production, however, continues to indicate a moderate slump. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 with an increase of 8.2% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global vegetable waxes production attained its peak figure volume at 132K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, vegetable waxes production totaled $466M in 2018 estimated in export prices. In general, vegetable waxes production, however, continues to indicate a measured contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when production volume increased by 9.2% against the previous year. The global vegetable waxes production peaked at $612M in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of vegetable waxes production in 2018 were Brazil (17K tonnes), China (15K tonnes) and India (7.2K tonnes), with a combined 40% share of global production.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of vegetable waxes production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced mixed trends in the production figures.

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports stood at 31K tonnes in 2018, going down by -1.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, vegetable waxes exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 36% year-to-year. The global exports peaked at 61K tonnes in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, vegetable waxes exports amounted to $171M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, the total exports indicated a moderate expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value decreased at an average annual rate of -0.5% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes exports decreased by +0.4% against 2016 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when exports increased by 44% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global vegetable waxes exports attained their peak figure at $261M in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

Brazil was the largest exporter of vegetable waxes in the world, with the volume of exports accounting for 14K tonnes, which was near 45% of total exports in 2018. Indonesia (4,327 tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total exports with a 14% share, followed by the U.S. (11%), Mexico (5.8%) and Germany (5.6%). China (1,172 tonnes) and Japan (756 tonnes) occupied a relatively small share of total exports.

Brazil experienced a relatively flat trend pattern of vegetable waxes exports. At the same time, China (+8.4%), Germany (+6.3%), the U.S. (+4.9%), Mexico (+3.0%) and Japan (+1.0%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, China emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the world, with a CAGR of +8.4% from 2007-2018. By contrast, Indonesia (-5.8%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2018, the share of the U.S., Germany, China and Mexico increased by +4.6%, +2.7%, +2.2% and +1.6% percentage points, while Brazil (-4.2 p.p.) and Indonesia (-12.8 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Brazil ($93M) remains the largest vegetable waxes supplier worldwide, comprising 54% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Mexico ($18M), with a 10% share of global exports. It was followed by the U.S., with a 8.4% share.

In Brazil, vegetable waxes exports expanded at an average annual rate of +2.8% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Mexico (+11.9% per year) and the U.S. (+5.6% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The average vegetable waxes export price stood at $5,458 per tonne in 2018, declining by -3% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the export price indicated a notable expansion from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes export price decreased by -7.9% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 an increase of 27% year-to-year. The global export price peaked at $5,926 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, export prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Mexico ($9,814 per tonne), while Indonesia ($1,318 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Mexico, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 35K tonnes of vegetable waxes were imported worldwide; picking up by 6.4% against the previous year. In general, vegetable waxes imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2012 with an increase of 42% y-o-y. In that year, global vegetable waxes imports attained their peak of 72K tonnes. From 2013 to 2018, the growth of global vegetable waxes imports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, vegetable waxes imports totaled $208M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, the total imports indicated strong growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +0.8% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes imports increased by +12.5% against 2016 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 37% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global vegetable waxes imports reached their maximum at $263M in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, imports remained at a lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, the U.S. (6.2K tonnes), distantly followed by Germany (3,635 tonnes), China (3,444 tonnes), Japan (2,816 tonnes), Australia (1,967 tonnes) and the UK (1,660 tonnes) were the largest importers of vegetable waxes, together achieving 57% of total imports. France (1,412 tonnes), the Netherlands (1,338 tonnes), Estonia (1,328 tonnes), the Philippines (1,089 tonnes), Italy (994 tonnes) and South Korea (932 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Australia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest vegetable waxes importing markets worldwide were the U.S. ($40M), Germany ($25M) and China ($23M), with a combined 42% share of global imports. Japan, France, the Netherlands, the UK, South Korea, Italy, Estonia, Australia and the Philippines lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 36%.

Among the main importing countries, Australia experienced the highest growth rate of imports, over the last eleven years, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average vegetable waxes import price amounted to $5,964 per tonne, rising by 2.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the import price indicated a strong expansion from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +4.1% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes import price increased by +64.5% against 2012 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 an increase of 34% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for vegetable waxes attained their peak figure in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was France ($8,360 per tonne), while the Philippines ($1,405 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

China market

Success in China: Market Opportunities & How to Get Started

Are you an ambitious entrepreneur from the west seeking to expand to China? Or are you interested in opening a new business in China? If yes, this article is for you. We will explain the 5 most viable business openings in China today and the 5 most reliable tips on how to get started in this highly-competitive market. Please be our guest.

Which Viable Market Opportunities Can You Pursue in China?

As the affluent middle class continues to expand in China, solid economic transformations in the country are being realized day by day. The biggest beneficiaries of these transformations are multinational companies who have set up or are planning to open a shop in China. There are now bigger and better market opportunities to pursue, more advanced industries to invest in, and more tech-intensive manufacturing opportunities to consider. As a matter of fact, China now boasts of a 50% bigger manufacturing economy as compared to the USA.

If you are looking to tap into the continued increase in high value-added production, increased globalization of the service sector, as well as the increased outbound investment in China, these 5 market opportunities would be lucrative enough for you:

Healthcare

Rising wealth often comes with an increase in lifestyle diseases. An increase in manufacturing, on the other hand, brings forth many environmental concerns. These two factors have made the healthcare industry very lucrative in China. You will create a reliable cash cow if you could invest in a business that deals with herbal supplements or small health products- or a mainstream pharmaceutical company, so to speak. Also, the use of skincare products is on the rise in China. It’s best to set up a wholly foreign-owned enterprise for such operations.

Import and export trade

China is currently the largest exporter of tech goods and importer of processed foods globally. That means you can build a profitable importing and exporting business here in a heartbeat. 

Supplementary education

Many middle-class Chinese are keen on improving their English and expanding their knowledge of different aspects of business and politics. If you can offer them after-school private tutoring services, you will be making impressive annual returns on a consistent basis. Moreover, online tutorage is on the rise in China, which enables you to tutor more people in a more cost-effective way.Food production

This goes without saying: Everyone needs food, everyone loves good food. And now that the middle-class in China is welcoming new entrants in huge numbers, there is a significant supply gap within this class for as long as the food is concerned. A rise in class obviously comes with a change in lifestyle, and food is at the center of every lifestyle. 

Mobile phones and accessories

The whole world has in the recent past turned to China for all its tech needs. The nation is the largest producer and importer of affordable mobile phones and accessories, meaning that a business in this industry would be extremely profitable.

How to Get Started In China

As lucrative as China could be, many investors from the west talk about it with fear. Some of these foreign entrants tried and failed, or struggled to find their footing in this Asian economic giant. But what would render you unable to compete and survive here? For starters, the business environment here is too unforgiving and the competition too stiff for the faint-hearted. Also, cases of language barriers, cultural differences, and bureaucratic government regulations have led to the peril of many. 

In the middle of all these, how do you defy the odds and succeed in China? Here are 5 actionable tips on how to get started in China:

Don’t just translate your content for China; ensure that everything about your business is localized for China. 

It is important to understand and comply with all business regulations in China. The hiring process can be tricky to a new entrant, which necessitates the services of a Chinese recruitment agency. Such an agency will help you with all employment laws, privileges, and remuneration. 

Ensure that you understand and respect the cultural differences that exist between the west and the east. 

Never underestimate the power of customer opinion in China. Let the customer tell what their experience with your product is, respect their opinion, learn from your mistakes, and ensure that you find lasting solutions to all their concerns. 

As much as possible, try to work with a local partner in order to benefit from the many favors local entrepreneurs get from the government. 

south american

Embracing the South American Ecommerce Marketplace

Ecommerce is on the rise in South America. Double-digit growth is expected for 2019 with sales of $71.34 billion (USD), tying it with the Middle East and Africa as the world’s second-fastest-growing retail ecommerce market. 

That’s great news for shippers looking to expand their online retail presence in South America.

A diamond in the rough

Online retailers in South America have been struggling for years to overcome several obstacles to success, including extensive customs delays, poor transportation infrastructure, and the lack of end-to-end supply chain visibility. Progress has been made on all three of these “challenges,” but more work is necessary to ensure the region’s continued double-digit growth. 

Within each challenge lies opportunity

While these obstacles may keep a few shippers from expanding into South America, others are viewing the area as a “diamond in the rough” and working diligently to reap the rewards of this truly untapped region. 

Having the right information is the first step to wading through the muck and mire of this complicated ecommerce marketplace:

South America customs vary by country

Red tape and bureaucracy pose the biggest obstacles for importing products into South American countries. In addition to customs taxes, tariffs, and fees, it can take 30+ days for some goods to be cleared through customs, especially in Brazil and Argentina. As a result, inventory builds up, costs rise, and customers wait longer for their products to arrive. In comparison, however, Chilean customs are very similar to the U.S. and allow products to flow through relatively quickly.

As you can tell, customs procedures can differ significantly, making it difficult for shippers to ensure compliance with each region’s unique customs. For a more seamless process, it’s essential shippers work with a customs broker or third party logistics provider (3PL) with local offices in the area. They’ll know the customs standards and understand the paperwork necessary to ensure products are approved for import.

Free trade agreements 

The United States-Chile trade agreement allows all U.S. exports of consumer and industrial products to enter Chile duty free. While still in the works, the United States-Brazil free trade agreement can help facilitate trade and boost investment between the two countries, especially in infrastructure. The United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement eliminates tariffs on 80% of U.S. consumer and industrial imports into Colombia. 

South America infrastructure at port and inland

South America is hobbled by its inadequate infrastructure, and it’s probably not going to change anytime soon. Roads remain the primary means of transportation, but 60% are unpaved, hampering the speed of delivery by truck to inland locations. Improvements are slowly occurring, thanks to increased government funding (but corruption hampers many efforts). It’s worth mentioning that China, the largest trading partner of Brazil, Chile, and Peru, invests heavily in the region, providing more than $140 billion (USD) in loans for infrastructure improvements in the past decade, according to The Business Year.  

While surface transportation remains stagnant, ocean freight shows promise. According to icontainers.com, routes going to and from South America represent 15% of the total number of trade services.

The largest container port in South America is in the city of Santos in Brazil’s Sao Paulo state. Its location provides easy access to the hinterlands via the Serra do Mar mountain range. More than 40% of Brazil’s containers are handled by the Port of Santos as well as nearly 33% of its trade, and 60 % of Brazil’s GDP, according to JOC.com

In 2018, Brazil’s busiest container cargo port handled 4.3 million TEUs, compared with 3.85 million TEUs in 2017. 

For Argentina, Zarate serves as the critical port for roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) and breakbulk cargo, while Buenos Aires and Rosario serve as the top container ports. Only two countries in South America are landlocked, Paraguay and Bolivia. 

Shippers and ocean carriers using the Port of Santos have been complaining about congestion and labor disputes at the port, and about politicization and time-consuming bureaucracy. That’s why it’s essential that shippers must have the latest information on traffic through these South American ports. Global freight forwarding companies in the area will have the newest information available to help you choose the right port of entry for your freight.

End-to-end supply chain visibility

Most online retailers and carriers understand that the sale is not complete until the product is delivered to the consumer. If merchandise is damaged during transport or arrives much later than promised, it reflects poorly on both parties and undermines consumer trust in ecommerce purchases. 

Lack of adequate infrastructure has forced many online retailers to put logistics on the back burner, focusing on the user experience through purchase. That’s why many products take weeks to arrive at the customer’s door, setting a bad precedent that must change. 

The South America trucking industry is highly fragmented, with providers ranging from owner-operators (about one-third of the industry) to sizable fleet operators and experienced freight forwarders who may not own any trucks at all, according to Tire Business newspaper. 

Final mile, LTL services paramount in South America

Once your product reaches port in South America and makes it through customs, how it gets delivered to the customer’s door can add extensive costs to your supply chain. Less than truckload (LTL) and final mile services are paramount to successfully operating in the region. Especially those carriers that can provide GPS freight tracking capabilities, such as C.H. Robinson’s Navisphere® technology

Final thoughts

Yes, there are obstacles to operating a supply chain in South American countries. Knowing the ins and outs of each country’s unique customs procedure, understanding which South American ports are best for your freight, and being able to track your shipments end-to-end will ensure your success in the region. Shippers who realize the potential of this “diamond in the rough” marketplace should work with a freight forwarder who will be extra focused and diligent in ensuring their freight moves quickly from customs fiscal warehouses to the final destinations. 

Enlist the aid of a global freight forwarding provider, like C.H. Robinson, who offers a global suite of services and has offices in the region that can help navigate any disruption in your supply chain.

Start the discussion with an expert in South America to accelerate your ecommerce trade. 

european market

European Market for Citrus Fruit Jams and Purees – France Benefits from the Highest Export Price ($4,292 per tonne)

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Citrus Fruit Jams, Marmalades, Jellies, Purees Or Pastes – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The market revenue for citrus fruit preserves (jams, marmalades, jellies, purees, and pastes) in the European Union amounted to $319M in 2018, growing by 8% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, citrus fruit preserves consumption, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 22% against the previous year. The level of citrus fruit preserves consumption peaked at $331M in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of citrus fruit preserves consumption in 2018 were the UK (26K tonnes), Italy (24K tonnes) and Spain (18K tonnes), with a combined 56% share of total consumption. France, the Netherlands, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Romania, Ireland, Poland and Hungary lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 33%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($83M), Italy ($60M) and France ($42M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 58% share of the total market. These countries were followed by Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Romania, Germany, Hungary and Poland, which together accounted for a further 32%.

The countries with the highest levels of citrus fruit preserves per capita consumption in 2018 were Ireland (591 kg per 1000 persons), Italy (412 kg per 1000 persons) and Belgium (410 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 125K tonnes of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes were produced in the European Union; rising by 13% against the previous year. Overall, citrus fruit preserves production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when production volume increased by 29% y-o-y. The volume of citrus fruit preserves production peaked at 138K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves production amounted to $313M in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +1.1% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 when production volume increased by 22% against the previous year. In that year, citrus fruit preserves production attained its peak level of $338M. From 2009 to 2018, citrus fruit preserves production growth remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of citrus fruit preserves production in 2018 were the UK (26K tonnes), Spain (24K tonnes) and Italy (24K tonnes), with a combined 59% share of total production. France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, the Czech Republic, Romania, Denmark, Hungary and Poland lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 36K tonnes of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes were exported in the European Union; surging by 7.5% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.7% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 with an increase of 14% y-o-y. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves exports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves exports stood at $87M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 15% y-o-y. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves exports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

The exports of the eight major exporters of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes, namely Spain, the UK, Germany, France, Denmark, Italy, Belgium and Ireland, represented more than two-thirds of total export.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($19M), the UK ($15M) and Spain ($15M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, with a combined 55% share of total exports.

In terms of the main exporting countries, Spain recorded the highest growth rate of exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The citrus fruit preserves export price in the European Union stood at $2,436 per tonne in 2018, increasing by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the citrus fruit preserves export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when the export price increased by 15% y-o-y. In that year, the export prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes reached their peak level of $3,042 per tonne. From 2014 to 2018, the growth in terms of the export prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was France ($4,292 per tonne), while Denmark ($1,750 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes imported in the European Union amounted to 32K tonnes, going up by 11% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 36% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves imports stood at $69M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when imports increased by 28% year-to-year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves imports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

France (7,472 tonnes) and the UK (6,570 tonnes) represented roughly 43% of total imports of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes in 2018. Germany (3,454 tonnes) ranks next in terms of the total imports with a 11% share, followed by Italy (9.5%), Ireland (9.1%) and Portugal (6%). Poland (1,196 tonnes), Sweden (1,188 tonnes), Spain (1,175 tonnes), the Netherlands (759 tonnes) and Belgium (565 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($14M), France ($13M) and Germany ($10M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 54% share of total imports. Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Sweden, Spain, Belgium, Poland and the Netherlands lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 37%.

Portugal recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The citrus fruit preserves import price in the European Union stood at $2,121 per tonne in 2018, approximately mirroring the previous year. Overall, the citrus fruit preserves import price continues to indicate a mild slump. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 7% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the import prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes attained their maximum at $2,824 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($4,655 per tonne), while Ireland ($1,386 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

peach

African Peach and Nectarine Market – Egypt to Dominate Production and Trade in 2019

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Africa – Peaches And Nectarines – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the peach and nectarine market in Africa amounted to $1.7B in 2018, therefore, remained relatively stable against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The total market indicated a strong growth from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period.

Based on 2018 figures, the peach and nectarine consumption increased by +32.3% against 2014 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017, with an increase of 23% against the previous year. In that year, the peach and nectarine market reached its peak level of $1.7B, leveling off in the following year.

Production in Africa

The peach and nectarine production amounted to 1.2M tonnes in 2018, going up by 2.5% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017, with an increase of 9.9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, peach and nectarine production attained its maximum volume in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term. The general positive trend in terms of peach and nectarine output was largely conditioned by a mild expansion of the harvested area and a moderate growth in yield figures.

Exports in Africa

In 2018, exports of peaches and nectarines in Africa totaled 59K tonnes, going down by -14.5% against the previous year. In general, peach and nectarine exports continue to indicate a drastic descent. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016, with an increase of 9.7% against the previous year. The volume of exports peaked at 99K tonnes in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, peach and nectarine exports amounted to $100M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +2.8% over the period from 2008 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017, with an increase of 20% year-to-year. In that year, peach and nectarine exports attained their peak of $110M, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Exports by Country

In 2018, South Africa (18K tonnes) and Egypt (14K tonnes) represented the main exporters of peaches and nectarines in the region, together creating 55% of total exports. Guinea (7.9K tonnes) held a 13% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by Morocco (11%), Tunisia (8.9%) and Tanzania (7.4%). Zambia (2.3K tonnes) held a relatively small share of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Tanzania (+228.4% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, South Africa ($38M) remains the largest peach and nectarine supplier in Africa, comprising 38% of total peach and nectarine exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Egypt ($15M), with a 15% share of total exports. It was followed by Guinea, with a 12% share.

Export Prices by Country

The peach and nectarine export price in Africa stood at $1,675 per tonne in 2018, jumping by 5.9% against the previous year. The export price indicated a strong increase from 2008 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +8.2% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, the peach and nectarine export price increased by +120.3% against 2008 indices.

Export prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest export price was Zambia ($4,702 per tonne), while Egypt ($1,034 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of export prices was attained by Guinea, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in Africa

In 2018, approx. 54K tonnes of peaches and nectarines were imported in Africa; rising by 72% against the previous year.

In value terms, peach and nectarine imports totaled $41M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, peach and nectarine imports continue to indicate a prominent expansion. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013, with an increase of 43% against the previous year. Over the period under review, peach and nectarine imports reached their peak figure at $43M in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, imports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Egypt (29K tonnes) represented the key importer for peaches and nectarines, comprising 53% of total imports. Algeria (17K tonnes) took the second position in the ranking, distantly followed by Libya (2.6K tonnes) and South Africa (2.6K tonnes). All these countries together held approx. 40% share of total imports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Algeria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest peach and nectarine importing markets in Africa were Algeria ($19M), Egypt ($12M) and South Africa ($3.8M), with a combined 83% share of total imports.

Import Prices by Country

The peach and nectarine import price in Africa stood at $758 per tonne in 2018, reducing by -28.1% against the previous year. Overall, the peach and nectarine import price continues to indicate a significant descent. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017 when the import price increased by 56% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the import prices for peaches and nectarines reached their maximum at $1,098 per tonne in 2011; however, from 2012 to 2018, import prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average import prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest import price was South Africa ($1,479 per tonne), while Egypt ($401 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of import prices was attained by Libya, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

carousel

CAROUSEL RETALIATION: TARIFF UNCERTAINTY ON ANOTHER RIDE

The Ride Music Starts

On October 2, a World Trade Organization (WTO) arbitrator rendered a decision that authorizes the United States to apply retaliatory tariffs on as much as $7.5 billion worth of European exports each year until WTO-illegal European subsidies to its aircraft industry are removed.

In a press release issued that day, the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) announced that beginning October 18, the United States would apply WTO-approved tariffs on a list of EU products. The list includes 10 percent duties on civil aircraft, but also 25 percent duties on goods we consume directly including butter, various cheeses, clementines, clams, green olives and single-malt Irish and Scotch Whiskies.

Before their next cocktail party, U.S. shoppers might stock up to beat the tariffs, but they may not want to go overboard buying Parmigiano Reggiano. That’s because the Administration is reportedly considering what is known as “carousel” retaliation – a regular rotation of goods targeted for tariffs, designed to impose maximum pain. The United States and Europe have been on this ride before.

Theme Park Rules

In a trade dispute, the parties first enter into consultations. If they are unable to come to an agreement, the complainant may request a WTO panel to review the dispute. Once the panel issues a report, the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) will adopt it, unless a party appeals it or all DSB members vote against adoption.

If there is an appeal, the Appellate Body reviews the case and delivers its findings, together with the panel report as modified by the appeal, to the DSB. If the complaining party wins, the losing party is given a “reasonable” period of time to implement the decision. The original panel may be called upon to determine if the losing party implemented the ruling in the agreed timeframe. If not, there are two alternatives for the party bringing the case: seek compensation or retaliate. In the latter case, the complainant estimates its loss, the losing party can seek arbitration on the level, and the DSB authorizes the final amount.

Such countermeasures should be “equivalent” to the injury caused and “related to” the economic sector of the illegal measure, with the goal to induce the removal of the offending measure. Often the offending party will, in fact, withdraw the measure before the imposition of authorized retaliatory measures.

US wins 7.5 billion dispute against EU on Airbus illegal subsidies

Beef and Bananas – How Carousel Started

In some cases, applying tariffs on imports isn’t enough to induce compliance. When the United States, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico won their case in the WTO challenging the legality of Europe’s banana import policy, the European Union (EU) failed to comply with the ruling, even in the face of nearly $200 million in U.S. tariffs.

U.S. banana exporters, increasingly frustrated with the EU’s lack of compliance with the WTO ruling, looked to Congress to enact a new tool to increase the pressure. They found allies in U.S. livestock exporters, who had won a WTO case that a European ban on U.S. imports of meat produced with hormones was inconsistent with the EU’s WTO obligations. As with the banana case, the EU had employed delaying tactics to stall implementation of the panel decision against it.

Riding a New Horse

Two months after USTR imposed retaliatory tariffs in the beef hormone dispute, a group of Senators introduced S.1619, the Carousel Retaliation Act of 1999. Proposed as an amendment to Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, its provisions would have required USTR to “carousel” or rotate its product retaliation list when an offending country does not implement a WTO decision. More specifically, USTR was to rotate items 120 days after the first retaliation list and every 180 days thereafter, with the ability to opt not to do so if compliance is imminent or rotation is deemed unnecessary. The bill language ultimately became part of the Trade and Development Act of 2000.

While banana and meat producers were supportive, other industries were not. Some argued that frequently rotating the products subjects to tariffs would be challenging for retailers. The EU contended the method was WTO inconsistent, though the WTO never ruled on the matter.

USTR ultimately did not pull the trigger to rotate its retaliatory tariff list in either the banana or beef cases as the matters got bound up in a separate dispute over U.S. tax benefits for foreign sales corporations (FSC). The EU had previously won a case against FSC and the U.S. amended its law in November 2000 in response. The EU challenged whether that revision brought the measure into WTO compliance. The United States and EU agreed informally that the EU would not pursue sanctions in the FSC case, but if the United States revised its product lists under the carousel provisions, all bets were off. Ultimately, the WTO ruled the revised U.S. law was not compliant, the United States lost its appeal, and the issue was not resolved until five years later.

Others Get on the Ride

The United States develops retaliation lists with an eye to maximizing pain on the trading partner that committed the foul, while trying to minimize the inevitable adverse impact on its own consumers and firms. Mexico has adeptly turned this practice against the United States in response to practices it viewed as inconsistent with WTO or NAFTA obligations.

NAFTA provisions governing retaliation state that an injured party should first “seek to suspend benefits in the same sector” as that covered by the restrictive measure. If it is not practical or effective to suspend benefits in the same sector, the injured party “may suspend benefits in other sectors.”

During the original NAFTA negotiations, the United States and Mexico agreed to phase out restrictions on cross-border passenger and cargo services. In 1995, however, the United States announced it would not lift restrictions on Mexican trucks and, in 2001, a NAFTA dispute panel found the U.S. to be in breach of its obligations. After years of negotiation and a false start with a U.S. pilot program, Mexico retaliated in 2009 on more than $2 billion worth of U.S. goods.

Mexico used a carousel approach, rotating different products on and off the retaliation list. The first list of 89 products went into effect in March 2009. The list was revised in August 2010, by removing 16 of the listed products and adding 26 more, bringing the total number of products on the updated list to 99. Through this method, Mexico was able to target key pain points, leading the U.S. to institute another pilot program in 2011, and Mexico to remove its tariffs.

More recently, when the Trump Administration moved forward with 25 percent tariffs on Mexican steel imports and 10 percent tariffs on Mexican aluminum imports in June 2018, Mexico responded with retaliatory tariffs on $2.7 billion of U.S. goods that included various steel products but also pork legs, apples, cheese and other agricultural products that had seen significant growth in export value and market share in Mexico.

In March 2019, Mexico’s Deputy Economy Minister Luz Maria de la Mora stated that if the United States did not repeal the tariffs, her government would have an updated list in its “carousel” of U.S. targets ready in about two months, noting that Mexico would bring in some new products and remove others. In early May, she announced the revised list was ready and under final review, but the United States agreed in mid-May to remove its tariffs, hoping to boost the chances of ratification of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) agreement.

Round and Round We Go

Perhaps symbolic of the differences that the United States and Europe are trying to bridge, in America carousels turn counterclockwise and in England and much of Europe, they rotate clockwise.

Some observers see the recently announced U.S. retaliation list against the EU as more restrained than expected. Tariff rates of 100 percent had been possible and some of the announced exemptions were not anticipated. We’ll soon know more about the Trump Administration’s thinking on a carousel approach and how the Europeans will respond. There are no height restrictions to get on this tariff retaliation ride, but riders may need to buckle up.

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Leslie Griffin is Principal of Boston-based Allinea LLC. She was previously Senior Vice President for International Public Policy for UPS and is a past president of the Association of Women in International Trade in Washington, D.C.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

fruits nuts

U.S. – Fruits, Nuts And Peel (Sugar Preserved) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘U.S. – Fruits, Nuts And Peel (Sugar Preserved) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Exports from the U.S.

In 2018, the amount of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) exported from the U.S. stood at 5.2K tonnes, shrinking by -7.3% against the previous year. Overall, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) continue to indicate a slight reduction. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2009 with an increase of 42% y-o-y. Exports peaked at 9.3K tonnes in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) totaled $11M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) continue to indicate a slight contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 with an increase of 76% against the previous year. In that year, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) reached their peak of $21M. From 2010 to 2018, the growth of exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) failed to regain its momentum.

Exports by Country

Canada (1.8K tonnes) was the main destination for exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) from the U.S., with a 35% share of total exports. Moreover, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) to Canada exceeded the volume sent to the second major destination, Saudi Arabia (385 tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by China (352 tonnes), with a 6.8% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume to Canada stood at +16.1%. Exports to the other major destinations recorded the following average annual rates of exports growth: Saudi Arabia (+11.9% per year) and China (+9.2% per year).

In value terms, Canada ($2.7M), China ($1.6M) and Turkey ($888K) constituted the largest markets for sweetened dried fruit and nut exported from the U.S. worldwide, together accounting for 46% of total exports.

Turkey recorded the highest growth rate of exports, among the main countries of destination over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The average export price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) stood at $2,198 per tonne in 2018, coming down by -1.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the export price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved), however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 an increase of 25% year-to-year. In that year, the average export prices for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) attained their peak level of $2,776 per tonne. From 2010 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average export prices for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) failed to regain its momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Turkey ($4,656 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Australia ($983 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to Taiwan, Chinese, while the prices for the other major destinations experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into the U.S.

In 2018, the imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) into the U.S. totaled 9.4K tonnes, picking up by 22% against the previous year. In general, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved), however, continue to indicate a slight downturn. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2018 with an increase of 22% y-o-y. Imports peaked at 12K tonnes in 2010; however, from 2011 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) stood at $32M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 18% year-to-year. Over the period under review, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Thailand (4.5K tonnes) constituted the largest supplier of sweetened dried fruit and nut to the U.S., with a 48% share of total imports. Moreover, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) from Thailand exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest supplier, China (827 tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Fiji (722 tonnes), with a 7.7% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume from Thailand totaled -1.1%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: China (-1.9% per year) and Fiji (+20.1% per year).

In value terms, Thailand ($14.2M) constituted the largest supplier of sweetened dried fruit and nut to the U.S., comprising 45% of total imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved). The second position in the ranking was occupied by Fiji ($3.5M), with a 11% share of total imports. It was followed by China, with a 11% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of value from Thailand totaled +3.4%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: Fiji (+23.8% per year) and China (+0.5% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average import price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) amounted to $3,379 per tonne, falling by -9.4% against the previous year. Overall, the import price indicated a noticeable increase from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +3.5% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, import price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) increased by +54.7% against 2009 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2013 an increase of 27% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) reached their peak figure at $3,729 per tonne in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major supplying countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Fiji ($4,917 per tonne), while the price for India ($1,887 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Mexico, while the prices for the other major suppliers experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform