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HONEY BEES POLLINATE TRADE OPPORTUNITIES

honey

HONEY BEES POLLINATE TRADE OPPORTUNITIES

Harvesting season in the Central Valley

Stretched across some 500 miles throughout California’s Central Valley, almond hulls are splitting open, signaling the beginning of harvesting season.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture is forecasting that California’s almond growers are set to produce a bumper crop this year of about 2.5 billion pounds, about 70 percent of which will be exported around the world.

It’s an industry that drives about one-quarter of California’s farm exports and generates about $21.5 billion in economic output for the region including growing, processing and manufacturing activities.

A productive crop must be nourished

California is blessed with the perfect climate for almond production, but it must import one of its most important ingredients: pollinators for the almond blooms.

Every February, two out of every three commercial bee hives in the United States are transported to California, their bee residents pressed into service of the almond bloom.

In fact, it’s just the start of an annual food pollinating bee tour. Anywhere from 60 to 75 percent of the bee population kept as livestock crisscross the United States foraging on the blooms of crops that will eventually make their way into our grocery stores and into overseas markets.

Pollinated crop acreage

First stop, almond orchards

For most commercial bees, the pollinating season begins with almonds, California’s largest crop. To provide a sense of scale, Scientific American estimates it takes some two million hives – more than 31 billion honeybees – to pollinate the Central Valley’s 90 million almond trees during their two-week bloom. It’s a symbiotic relationship: the bees gather nectar and pollen to feed their colonies, enabling them to triple their population.

Once almonds bloom in January, hives are moved to other spring-blooming orchards such as cherries and plums in California or apples in the Pacific Northwest. Some head to Texas to pollinate squashes, others to citrus fruit orchards in Florida, and others are dispatched to pollinate cranberries in Wisconsin and cherries in Michigan.

In all, these busy bee travelers pollinate over 90 different crops and then sweeten the deal by shifting into delicious honey production by the end of summer, which they will nourish themselves on over winter while we get to consume the rest. Americans consume a staggering 1.6 pounds of honey per person every year. Even though U.S. beekeepers produced 148 million pounds of honey in 2017 and exported 9.9 million pounds, we imported 447.5 million pounds to keep up with demand from consumers and food producers.

Mobile beehive on trucks
Millions of bees are “exported” state to state to pollinate 90 different American crops.

One in every three bites of food

From cucumbers and citrus fruits to watermelon, kiwis, berries, cherries, apples, melons, peaches, figs, tomatoes, pumpkins and almonds, one-third of the U.S. food supply relies on pollination by the hard-working honey bee.

And, of course, since the United States is a major exporter of agricultural crops, we could say that honey bees help pollinate our trade opportunities. That’s true globally for hundreds of billions worth of crop production and internationally traded food that depends on pollinators.

$15 billion in value for 90 crops

Healthy bees, healthy trade in food

When bees get sick, the health of the U.S. agriculture economy and agricultural exports is imperiled.

Although honey bees are not the only pollinators supporting U.S. agriculture, they are the most important, adding more than $15 billion in value to U.S. agricultural crops each year according to the U.S. Pollinator Health Task Force.

Colony collapse disorder over the last few years drew widespread attention, but the decline in North American honey bees is a long-term trend. In 1947, there were about six million colonies but today we are down to about 2.5 million.

Sharp declines were seen following the introduction in 1987 of an external parasitic mite, aptly named Varroa destructor, that feeds on the blood of honey bees. Loss rates over the winter have been averaging around 31 percent since 2006, far exceeding the 15-17 percent that commercial bee keepers say is economically sustainable.

The rise of monoculture agriculture with increased reliance on pesticides and reduced use of cover crops is thought to add stress on bee health. The bees are struggling to maintain a varied and high-quality diet – they need protein from pollen and carbohydrates from the nectar of flowering plants. Without adequate nutrition, they are also more vulnerable to viruses.

1 in 3 bites

Experts have organized into research consortia, working groups and task forces to try to determine what can be done. The factors negatively impacting bee health are multiple, complex, and interacting, requiring a similarly comprehensive approach to combat them, including restoration of habitats, dissemination of best practices in hive management, and investments in research to better understand how to prevent colony loss.

We are all invested in their success, and when you see honey bees buzzing around your garden this summer, think about the humble but essential role their busywork plays in U.S. food production and agricultural exports.

This article is adapted from “Honey Bee Health is Serious Business” by Andrea Durkin for Progressive Economy.

_________________________________________________________________

Andrea Durkin is the Editor-in-Chief of TradeVistas and Founder of Sparkplug, LLC. Ms. Durkin previously served as a U.S. Government trade negotiator and has proudly taught international trade policy and negotiations for the last fifteen years as an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University’s Master of Science in Foreign Service program.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

goat meat

The Asian-Pacific Goat Meat Market to Retain Robust Growth

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Asia-Pacific – Goat Meat – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The Asia-Pacific goat meat market expanded rapidly to $30.1B in 2019, growing by 9.9% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The total market indicated a prominent expansion from 2007 to 2019: its value increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% over the last twelve-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2019 figures, consumption increased by +56.7% against 2014 indices. The level of consumption peaked in 2019 and is expected to retain growth in years to come.

Consumption by Country

The country with the largest volume of goat meat consumption was China (2.4M tonnes), comprising approx. 61% of total volume. Moreover, goat meat consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest consumer, India (502K tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Pakistan (352K tonnes), with a 9.1% share.

In China, goat meat consumption increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% over the period from 2007-2019. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: India (-0.5% per year) and Pakistan (+2.8% per year).

In value terms, China ($22.7B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by India ($2.4B). It was followed by Pakistan.

The countries with the highest levels of goat meat per capita consumption in 2019 were Nepal (2.47 kg per person), Myanmar (1.89 kg per person) and Pakistan (1.72 kg per person).

Market Forecast 2019-2030

Driven by increasing demand for goat meat in Asia-Pacific, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next decade. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.5% for the period from 2019 to 2030, which is projected to bring the market volume to 4.6M tonnes by the end of 2030.

Production in Asia-Pacific

In 2019, goat meat production in Asia-Pacific rose to 3.9M tonnes, with an increase of 2% on 2018 figures. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016 with an increase of 3.4% y-o-y. Over the period under review, production reached the peak volume in 2019 and is likely to see gradual growth in the immediate term. The general positive trend in terms output was largely conditioned by a mild expansion of the number of producing animals and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

In value terms, goat meat production soared to $36.8B in 2019 estimated in export prices. Overall, production posted a remarkable increase. Over the period under review, production hit record highs in 2019 and is expected to retain growth in the immediate term.

Production by Country

China (2.4M tonnes) remains the largest goat meat producing country in Asia-Pacific, accounting for 61% of total volume. Moreover, goat meat production in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest producer, India (502K tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Pakistan (353K tonnes), with a 9.1% share.

In China, goat meat production increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% over the period from 2007-2019. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: India (-0.5% per year) and Pakistan (+2.7% per year).

Producing Animals in Asia-Pacific

In 2019, the number of animals slaughtered for goat meat production in Asia-Pacific expanded to 291M heads, picking up by 1.6% compared with the previous year. This number increased at an average annual rate of +1.5% over the period from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations in certain years. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2009 when the number of producing animals increased by 5.3% year-to-year. Over the period under review, this number hit record highs at 291M heads in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2019, producing animals failed to regain the momentum.

Yield in Asia-Pacific

The average goat meat yield amounted to 13 kg per head in 2019, leveling off at the year before. Over the period under review, the yield saw a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 5.1% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the goat meat yield hit record highs in 2019 and is likely to see steady growth in years to come.

Imports in Asia-Pacific

In 2019, the amount of goat meat imported in Asia-Pacific contracted to 8.8K tonnes, waning by -9.2% on 2018. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2007 to 2019; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 when imports increased by 25% against the previous year. As a result, imports reached the peak of 12K tonnes. From 2015 to 2019, the growth imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, goat meat imports declined to $43M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. Overall, imports, however, recorded buoyant growth. The level of import peaked at $57M in 2017; however, from 2018 to 2019, imports yet failed to regain the momentum.

Imports by Country

The purchases of the four major importers of goat meat, namely Taiwan, Viet Nam, South Korea and Hong Kong SAR, represented more than two-thirds of total import. It was distantly followed by Japan (460 tonnes), making up a 5.2% share of total imports. China (317 tonnes), Macao SAR (292 tonnes), India (209 tonnes), Sri Lanka (185 tonnes), Malaysia (177 tonnes) and the Philippines (169 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of purchases, amongst the key importing countries, was attained by India, while imports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest goat meat importing markets in Asia-Pacific were Taiwan ($12M), South Korea ($9.4M) and Hong Kong SAR ($6.4M), together comprising 64% of total imports. These countries were followed by Japan, Viet Nam, Macao SAR, China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and India, which together accounted for a further 32%.

Among the main importing countries, India recorded the highest growth rate of the value of imports, over the period under review, while purchases for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2019, the goat meat import price in Asia-Pacific amounted to $4,887 per tonne, waning by -2.2% against the previous year. Import price indicated a perceptible increase from 2007 to 2019: its price increased at an average annual rate of +4.5% over the last twelve years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2019 figures, goat meat import price decreased by -15.8% against 2017 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016 when the import price increased by 22% year-to-year. Over the period under review, import prices reached the peak figure at $5,802 per tonne in 2017; however, from 2018 to 2019, import prices failed to regain the momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was Macao SAR ($7,657 per tonne), while Viet Nam ($1,613 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Macao SAR, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

fig

Global Fig Market Posts Solid Gains

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Figs – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Exports 2007-2019

In 2019, shipments abroad of figs increased by 4% to 130K tonnes, rising for the fourth consecutive year after two years of decline. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.6% over the period from 2007 to 2019; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 13% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global exports attained the maximum in 2019 and are expected to retain growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fig exports shrank to $467M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +3.9% over the period from 2007 to 2019; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period.

Exports by Country

Turkey dominates fig exports structure, amounting to 85K tonnes, which was near 65% of total exports in 2019. It was distantly followed by Spain (7.6K tonnes), making up a 5.8% share of total exports. Germany (3.8K tonnes), the Netherlands (3.8K tonnes), Syrian Arab Republic (3.7K tonnes), Greece (3.6K tonnes), the U.S. (2.3K tonnes), France (2K tonnes) and Iran (2K tonnes) occupied a relatively small share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2019, average annual rates of growth with regard to fig exports from Turkey stood at +5.0%. At the same time, Greece (+6.5%), Germany (+5.3%), Spain (+3.9%), Syrian Arab Republic (+3.7%) and the Netherlands (+2.3%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Greece emerged as the fastest-growing exporter exported in the world, with a CAGR of +6.5% from 2007-2019. France experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, the U.S. (-2.3%) and Iran (-7.0%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2019, the share of Turkey and Spain increased by +29% and +2.2% percentage points, while Iran (-2.1 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Turkey ($287M) remains the largest fig supplier worldwide, comprising 61% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the Netherlands ($21M), with a 4.5% share of global exports. It was followed by Spain, with a 4.4% share.

From 2007 to 2019, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value in Turkey totaled +4.5%. The remaining exporting countries recorded the following average annual rates of exports growth: the Netherlands (+3.2% per year) and Spain (+7.7% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The average fig export price stood at $3,591 per tonne in 2019, dropping by -6.4% against the previous year. In general, the export price, however, saw a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 20% year-to-year. As a result, export price attained the peak level of $4,138 per tonne. From 2009 to 2019, the growth in terms of the average export prices failed to regain the momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was the U.S. ($5,855 per tonne), while Iran ($2,269 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Syrian Arab Republic, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2019

Global fig imports rose notably to 162K tonnes in 2019, surging by 10% compared with the previous year’s figure. In general, total imports indicated a tangible expansion from 2007 to 2019: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.7% over the last twelve years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2019 figures, imports increased by +25.8% against 2017 indices. Global imports peaked in 2019 and are likely to see gradual growth in the near future.

In value terms, fig imports rose sharply to $603M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. Overall, total imports indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2019: its value increased at an average annual rate of +4.7% over the last twelve-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Over the period under review, global imports hit record highs in 2019 and are expected to retain growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

In 2019, India (27K tonnes), followed by Germany (18K tonnes), France (15K tonnes), the U.S. (12K tonnes) and the UK (7.5K tonnes) were the key importers of figs, together making up 49% of total imports. The following importers – Russia (5.6K tonnes), Austria (5.5K tonnes), Italy (5.2K tonnes), the Netherlands (4.7K tonnes), Canada (4.1K tonnes), Viet Nam (3.6K tonnes) and Switzerland (3.6K tonnes) – together made up 20% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2019, the biggest increases were in India, while purchases for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, India ($96M), Germany ($63M) and France ($57M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2019, together accounting for 36% of global imports. These countries were followed by the U.S., the UK, Austria, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Viet Nam and Russia, which together accounted for a further 33%.

Viet Nam saw the highest rates of growth with regard to the value of imports, among the main importing countries over the period under review, while purchases for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The average fig import price stood at $3,725 per tonne in 2019, waning by -4.4% against the previous year. In general, the import price, however, saw a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008 an increase of 24% against the previous year. As a result, import price reached the peak level of $4,294 per tonne. From 2009 to 2019, the growth in terms of the average import prices failed to regain the momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was Canada ($5,675 per tonne), while Russia ($1,529 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the U.S., while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

EXIM'S

CHAIRMAN REED UNDERSCORES EXIM’S SUPPORT FOR AMERICAN INNOVATION GLOBALLY TO COUNCIL ON COMPETITIVENESS

Export-Import Bank of the United States (EXIM) President and Chairman Kimberly A. Reed participated in a Council on Competitiveness virtual dialogue with more than 40 members of the Council’s “Technology Leadership and Strategy Initiative” on June 8. Attendees represented a range of businesses, universities, and research institutions from across the country.

During the event, Reed highlighted EXIM’s role in advancing American innovation by helping U.S. businesses export their “Made in the USA” products around the world. She also discussed EXIM’s new Program on China and Transformational Exports, established in EXIM’s historic reauthorization, which is intended to help level the playing field for U.S. exporters and workers by directly neutralizing export subsidies for competing goods and services offered by the People’s Republic of China.

“The Council on Competitiveness has worked for many years to jump-start American productivity, and I was honored to join this esteemed group to focus on how the U.S. government can support innovation on the global stage,” Reed said.

Speaking of innovation, four days later Reed hosted a teleconference with 140 business leaders and stakeholders in the artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and high-performance computing sectors. On the call, Reed highlighted how EXIM’s partnership with the private sector can support and accelerate the success of American companies in of these transformative industries.

“These transformational exports drive growth in the United States economy, enhance our economic and national security, and improve our quality of life,” said Reed.

electrical insulator

The EU Electrical Insulator Market Slipped Back Slightly

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Electrical Insulators – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

For the third consecutive year, the EU electrical insulator market recorded decline in sales value, which decreased by -6.8% to $692M in 2019. In general, consumption recorded a perceptible contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 with an increase of 3.1% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the market attained the peak level at $1.1B in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2019, consumption remained at a lower figure.

Consumption by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of electrical insulator consumption in 2019 were Germany (17M units), Italy (12M units) and Spain (12M units), with a combined 36% share of total consumption. Romania, France, Poland, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, the UK, Belgium, Sweden and Austria lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 50%.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of electrical insulator consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Romania, while electrical insulator consumption for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($168M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Belgium ($64M). It was followed by France.

The countries with the highest levels of electrical insulator per capita consumption in 2019 were Romania (575 units per 1000 persons), the Czech Republic (564 units per 1000 persons) and the Netherlands (384 units per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of electrical insulator per capita consumption, amongst the leading consuming countries, was attained by Romania, while electrical insulator per capita consumption for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2030

Driven by rising demand for electrical insulator in the European Union, the market is expected to start an upward consumption trend over the next decade. The performance of the market is forecast to increase slightly, with an anticipated CAGR of +0.1% for the period from 2019 to 2030, which is projected to bring the market volume to 115M units by the end of 2030.

Production in the EU

In 2019, after three years of decline, there was growth in production of electrical insulators, when its volume increased by 3% to 132M units. In general, production, however, recorded a slight decrease. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2015 with an increase of 9.2% y-o-y. The volume of production peaked at 166M units in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2019, production failed to regain the momentum.

In value terms, electrical insulator production amounted to $967M in 2019 estimated in export prices. Overall, production, however, continues to indicate a pronounced reduction. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when the production volume increased by 4.4% against the previous year. The level of production peaked at $1.4B in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2019, production remained at a lower figure.

Production by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of electrical insulator production in 2019 were Italy (23M units), Spain (21M units) and Germany (20M units), together accounting for 49% of total production. Romania, Poland, Portugal, France, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 47%.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of electrical insulator production, amongst the leading producing countries, was attained by Romania, while electrical insulator production for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2019, after three years of decline, there was growth in shipments abroad of electrical insulators, when their volume increased by 2.1% to 100M units. Over the period under review, exports, however, showed a mild contraction. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2014 with an increase of 4.7% y-o-y. The volume of export peaked at 123M units in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2019, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, electrical insulator exports declined to $890M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. In general, exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Exports by Country

In 2019, Italy (24M units), distantly followed by Spain (15M units), Germany (15M units), Poland (7.3M units), Portugal (6.6M units), Romania (6.3M units), Slovakia (5.3M units) and the Czech Republic (4.6M units) represented the major exporters of electrical insulators, together making up 84% of total exports.

From 2007 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Poland, while shipments for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($250M), Italy ($150M) and Portugal ($48M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2019, together comprising 50% of total exports. These countries were followed by Spain, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Slovakia, which together accounted for a further 18%.

Poland saw the highest growth rate of the value of exports, among the main exporting countries over the period under review, while shipments for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The electrical insulator export price in the European Union stood at $8.9 per unit in 2019, declining by -5.9% against the previous year. Overall, the export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 an increase of 14% year-to-year. As a result, export price reached the peak level of $9.5 per unit, and then fell in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Germany ($17 per unit), while Slovakia ($2.8 per unit) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Germany, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2019, approx. 82M units of electrical insulators were imported in the European Union; which is down by -6.4% against 2018 figures. Over the period under review, imports recorded a slight curtailment. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 when imports increased by 13% y-o-y. Over the period under review, imports hit record highs at 95M units in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2019, imports failed to regain the momentum.

In value terms, electrical insulator imports contracted to $600M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. In general, imports continue to indicate a mild decline. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2018 with an increase of 11% year-to-year.

Imports by Country

In 2019, Italy (13M units), Germany (11M units), France (8.4M units), Sweden (6.5M units), Spain (5.3M units), the UK (4.9M units), the Czech Republic (4.7M units), Poland (4.1M units), the Netherlands (2.9M units), Portugal (2.7M units), Romania (2.3M units) and Austria (2.2M units) represented the major importer of electrical insulators in the European Union, mixing up 83% of total import.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of purchases, amongst the key importing countries, was attained by Romania, while imports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($116M), Italy ($59M) and the UK ($56M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2019, together accounting for 38% of total imports. These countries were followed by France, Spain, Poland, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Austria, Sweden, Portugal and Romania, which together accounted for a further 46%.

Austria recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to the value of imports, among the main importing countries over the period under review, while purchases for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The electrical insulator import price in the European Union stood at $7.3 per unit in 2019, approximately mirroring the previous year. In general, the import price showed a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2008 an increase of 9.3% year-to-year. As a result, import price reached the peak level of $8 per unit. From 2009 to 2019, the growth in terms of the import prices failed to regain the momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was Austria ($12 per unit), while Sweden ($3.9 per unit) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

apple market

Global Apple Market Reached $78M, but the Pandemic Might Put a Drag on Further Growth

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Apple – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global apple market was finally on the rise to reach $78.8B in 2019, after four years of decline. Over the period under review, the total market indicated a temperate expansion from 2007 to 2019: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% over the last twelve-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 16% y-o-y. Global consumption peaked in 2019 and is expected to retain growth in the immediate term.

COVID-19: Challenges and Opportunities

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered noticeable transformation of the markets throughout the world, in particular, with regard to the apple market. So far, the uncertainty regarding the depth of both the global and the national economic decline is too great to make reliable forecasts. However, changes are currently taking place in key market fundamentals: macroeconomic background, sales channels, supply chains, consumer behavior and prices.

According to the IMF, even several months lived outbreak would lead to at least a 3% contraction of the global GDP in 2020. Previously, during the 2008-2009 crisis, apple production in the world remained stable, but then it stagnated in 2010 and afterward, it continued robust growth.

Since apple constitutes a kind of staple food, the apple market is not too susceptible to falling incomes and economic downturns. However, apples are consumed widely in the HoReCa sector that suffered heavily from the pandemic. Given those assumptions, the contraction of the market in the short term of 2020 might be perceptible but not disastrous. In the medium term, the market growth may be hampered by the possible lack of investment into apple orchards in 2020 due to the economic uncertainty and tight financial conditions for both farmers and investors.

Major supply chain risk comes from possible weather effects rather than the economic crisis. It may be caused by the mild temperatures during the winter season of 2019-2020, which is particularly relevant for Eastern Europe. The mild temperatures could also result in an early blooming that may later cause the fruits to suffer the risk of a freeze.

Certain supply chain risks also exist with regard to quarantine measures.  While workers are locked down, the period of the treatment of trees begins, which is followed by the flowering period; those periods are critical for the appropriate orchard management. This may reduce the future quality of apples or require additional pesticide use to treat plant diseases. Moreover, in China, which is the largest producing country, there is a concern among beekeepers as they cannot serve their beehives appropriately due to the lockdown. This, in turn, may affect the pollination severely and thereby reduce harvests of fruits pollinated by bees; however, the impact of the problem may be rather local than systematically affect the entire market.

Another risk may appear due to the disruption of established international supply chains including food handling and packaging intermediaries, as well as in the processing sector. Supply chains may be undermined by asynchronous quarantine measures taken in the involved countries as well as the restraints in deliveries. However, this is now mitigated by the gradual re-opening of the economies in China, Europe, and other countries; the supply chains are also to be re-established.

Pastry containing apples and apple jams, as well as apple juice, constitute a popular product in cafes, especially in Europe and Western countries, but now this sales channel temporarily collapsed due to the quarantine. Given the limitations of the HoReCa sector, online retail is becoming a key channel for the sale of food products, including apples, apple juice, and processed apple products. Moreover, contactless delivery becomes a ‘must-have’ option for retail services.

Accordingly, retail packaging adapted to different consumption situations becomes more popular, especially for processed apple products: family packages, single person packages of various shapes and dimensions, etc.

As online retail becomes the key sales channel, advertising budgets are to shift increasingly from point-of-sale advertising towards Internet messengers and social networks. Furthermore, increased consumer attention to health stimulates changes in branding and promotion towards focusing on the health benefits of apples and apple products.

Consumption By Country

China (40M tonnes) remains the largest apple consuming country worldwide, comprising approx. 48% of total volume. Moreover, apple consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest consumer, the U.S. (4M tonnes), tenfold. Turkey (2.7M tonnes) ranked third in terms of total consumption with a 3.3% share.

In China, apple consumption increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% over the period from 2007-2019. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: the U.S. (+0.7% per year) and Turkey (+0.9% per year).

In value terms, China ($44.9B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the U.S. ($4.6B). It was followed by France.

The countries with the highest levels of apple per capita consumption in 2019 were Poland (45 kg per person), Turkey (33 kg per person) and Iran (33 kg per person).

Production 2007-2019

In 2019, production of apples increased by 6.7% to 84M tonnes for the first time since 2016, thus ending a two-year declining trend. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations throughout the analyzed period.

The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 with an increase of 8.1% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global production attained the maximum volume at 85M tonnes in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2019, production failed to regain the momentum. The general positive trend in terms output was largely conditioned by a temperate increase of the harvested area and a mild expansion in yield figures.

Production By Country

China (41M tonnes) remains the largest apple producing country worldwide, accounting for 49% of total volume. Moreover, apple production in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest producer, the U.S. (4.7M tonnes), ninefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Turkey (3M tonnes), with a 3.6% share.

From 2007 to 2019, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in China amounted to +3.3%. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: the U.S. (+1.0% per year) and Turkey (+1.7% per year).

Harvested Area 2007-2019

In 2019, the global apple harvested area expanded to 5.1M ha, increasing by 3.5% on the previous year’s figure. In general, the harvested area saw a relatively flat trend pattern. Over the period under review, the harvested area dedicated to apple production attained the maximum at 5.2M ha in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2019, the harvested area stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Yield 2007-2019

The global average apple yield rose modestly to 17 tonne per ha in 2019, with an increase of 3.1% compared with the year before. The yield figure increased at an average annual rate of +1.4% over the period from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when the yield increased by 6.2% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average apple yield attained the peak level at 17 tonne per ha in 2017; however, from 2018 to 2019, the yield stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports 2007-2019

Global apple exports reached 8.2M tonnes in 2019, remaining constant against 2018. Overall, exports saw a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2015 with an increase of 11% against the previous year. As a result, exports reached the peak of 9.3M tonnes. From 2016 to 2019, the growth of global exports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, apple exports dropped to $7B (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period.

Exports by Country

The shipments of the five major exporters of apples, namely Poland, China, Italy, the U.S. and Chile, represented more than half of total export. It was followed by South Africa (464K tonnes), New Zealand (432K tonnes) and France (381K tonnes), together creating a 16% share of total exports. Turkey (256K tonnes), Moldova (255K tonnes), Serbia (217K tonnes) and Belgium (195K tonnes) took a minor share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Turkey, while shipments for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, China ($1.2B), the U.S. ($962M) and Italy ($841M) were the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2019, with a combined 44% share of global exports. Chile, New Zealand, France, South Africa, Poland, Serbia, Moldova, Belgium and Turkey lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 39%.

Export Prices by Country

The average apple export price stood at $853 per tonne in 2019, which is down by -6.6% against the previous year. In general, the export price, however, recorded a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when the average export price increased by 14% year-to-year. Global export price peaked at $913 per tonne in 2018, and then fell in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was New Zealand ($1,311 per tonne), while Turkey ($350 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2019

In 2019, global apple imports shrank slightly to 8M tonnes. Overall, imports, however, showed a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2015 when imports increased by 14% against the previous year. As a result, imports reached the peak of 9.7M tonnes. From 2016 to 2019, the growth of global imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, apple imports shrank modestly to $7.2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.6% from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded in certain years.

Imports by Country

Russia (701K tonnes) and Germany (603K tonnes) represented roughly 16% of total imports of apples in 2019. The UK (342K tonnes), Egypt (297K tonnes), Bangladesh (252K tonnes), India (250K tonnes), the Netherlands (242K tonnes), Belarus (222K tonnes), Viet Nam (219K tonnes), Spain (218K tonnes), Canada (202K tonnes) and China, Hong Kong SAR (189K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of purchases, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Egypt, while imports for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest apple importing markets worldwide were Germany ($482M), the UK ($424M) and Russia ($394M), together accounting for 18% of global imports. Viet Nam, the Netherlands, India, China, Hong Kong SAR, Canada, Bangladesh, Spain, Egypt and Belarus lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 27%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2019, the average apple import price amounted to $897 per tonne, declining by -1.6% against the previous year. Over the last twelve-year period, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.2%. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when the average import price increased by 13% y-o-y. Over the period under review, average import prices reached the peak figure at $911 per tonne in 2018, and then reduced modestly in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Viet Nam ($1,608 per tonne), while Belarus ($285 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Viet Nam, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

pineapple juice

The EU Pineapple Juice Market Lacks to Gain Momentum

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Pineapple Juice – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The EU pineapple juice market (which refers to the single strength juice of both direct extraction and reconstituted from the concentrate) was estimated at $368M in 2019, approximately equating the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price. Over the period under review, consumption recorded a mild decline. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 when the market value increased by 30% against the previous year. As a result, consumption attained the peak level of $624M. From 2010 to 2019, the growth of the market failed to regain the momentum.

COVID-19: Challenges and Opportunities

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a noticeable transformation of the markets throughout the world, in particular, with regard to the pineapple juice market. So far, the uncertainty regarding the depth of both the global and the national economic decline is too great to make reliable forecasts. However, changes are currently taking place in key market fundamentals: macroeconomic background, sales channels, supply chains, consumer behavior, and prices.

According to the IMF, even several months lived outbreak would lead to at least a 3% contraction of the global GDP in 2020. Previously, during the 2008-2010 crisis, pineapple juice production in the world declined in 2010, and afterward, it rebounded over the next two years. Since pineapple juice is a less popular product than more common types of juice, it is more at risk from the COVID-19 epidemic than staple food products. In the context of falling incomes, consumers primarily tend to exclude non-staple goods from purchases, which in the EU countries is relevant for pineapple juice. Given those assumptions, the contraction of the market in the short term of 2020 might be perceptible. In the medium term, the market growth should start to rebound gradually along with rising incomes and the wane of the pandemic.

Major supply chain risk comes from the fact that the pineapple industry in large producing countries (Costa Rica, the Philippines, Thailand) is largely export-oriented, therefore, a decrease in demand in Western countries can hurt local producers. Future pineapple cultivation may be hampered by the possible lack of investment in 2020 due to the economic uncertainty and tight financial conditions for both farmers and investors. Consequently, it could undermine supply chains because local producers will switch to other crops if pineapple cultivation becomes unprofitable.

Another risk may appear due to the disruption of established international supply chains including food handling and packaging intermediaries, as well as in the processing sector. Supply chains may be undermined by asynchronous quarantine measures taken in the involved countries as well as the restraints in deliveries. However, this is now mitigated by the gradual re-opening of the economies in the are key importing markets  – the U.S. and Europe, which should support the market demand.

Given the limitations of the HoReCa sector and the reduced number of visits to traditional malls and shops, online retail is becoming a key channel for the sale of food products, including pineapple juice. Moreover, contactless delivery becomes a ‘must-have’ option for retail services. As online retail becomes the key sales channel, advertising budgets are to shift increasingly from point-of-sale advertising towards Internet messengers and social networks.

On the other hand, retail packaging adapted to different consumption situations becomes more popular: family packages, single person packages of various shapes and dimensions, snack packages, etc. Furthermore, increased consumer attention to health stimulates changes in branding and promotion towards focusing on the health benefits of pineapple juice, which may support the rise of ‘non-from-concentrate’ brands.

Consumption by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of pineapple juice consumption in 2019 were Spain (117K tonnes), France (82K tonnes) and Germany (47K tonnes), together comprising 52% of total consumption. These countries were followed by Italy, the Netherlands, the UK and Belgium, which together accounted for a further 33%.

From 2007 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Belgium, while pineapple juice (single strength) consumption for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Spain ($115M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($52M). It was followed by Italy.

The countries with the highest levels of pineapple juice per capita consumption in 2019 were the Netherlands (2.54 kg per person), Spain (2.49 kg per person) and Belgium (2 kg per person).

Production in the EU

In 2019, pineapple juice production in the European Union declined modestly to 334K tonnes, which is down by -3.6% on 2018. In general, production continues to indicate a noticeable downturn. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2018 with an increase of 33% y-o-y. Over the period under review, production reached the peak volume at 669K tonnes in 2009; however, from 2010 to 2019, production failed to regain the momentum.

Production By Country

Spain (100K tonnes) remains the largest pineapple juice producing country in the European Union, accounting for 30% of total volume. Moreover, pineapple juice (single strength) production in Spain exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest producer, France (47K tonnes), twofold. Italy (44K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total production with a 13% share.

From 2007 to 2019, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in Spain amounted to -2.4%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: France (-0.7% per year) and Italy (-6.4% per year).

Exports in the EU

In 2019, exports of pineapple juice in the European Union shrank notably to 112K tonnes, which is down by -29.9% compared with the previous year. Total exports indicated tangible growth from 2007 to 2019: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% over the last twelve-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The volume of export peaked at 160K tonnes in 2018, and then reduced notably in the following year.

In value terms, pineapple juice (single strength) exports contracted to $82M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +2.5% over the period from 2007 to 2019; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years.

Exports by Country

The Netherlands was the largest exporter of pineapple juice in the European Union, with the volume of exports recording 59K tonnes, which was near 52% of total exports in 2019. It was distantly followed by Germany (13K tonnes), Belgium (11K tonnes), Spain (6.9K tonnes) and Cyprus (5.5K tonnes), together achieving a 32% share of total exports. Austria (4.1K tonnes) and France (3.6K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

The Netherlands was also the fastest-growing in terms of the pineapple juice (single strength) exports, with a CAGR of +16.1% from 2007 to 2019. At the same time, France (+11.0%), Cyprus (+9.1%), Belgium (+9.0%) and Spain (+8.0%) displayed positive paces of growth. Germany experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Austria (-9.7%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2019, the share of the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Cyprus and France increased by +44%, +6.1%, +3.7%, +3.2% and +2.3% percentage points, while Austria (-8.7 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the Netherlands ($38M) remains the largest pineapple juice supplier in the European Union, comprising 46% of total exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Germany ($12M), with a 14% share of total exports. It was followed by Belgium, with a 8.4% share.

In the Netherlands, pineapple juice exports increased at an average annual rate of +14.4% over the period from 2007-2019. The remaining exporting countries recorded the following average annual rates of exports growth: Germany (+0.8% per year) and Belgium (+7.0% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The average pineapple juice  export price in the European Union stood at $733 per tonne in 2019. Over the period under review, the export price, however, saw a relatively flat trend pattern. Over the period under review, export prices attained the maximum at $873 per tonne in 2011; however, from 2012 to 2019, export prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was France ($1,212 per tonne), while Cyprus ($543 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2019, overseas purchases of pineapple juice decreased by -5.1% to 249K tonnes, falling for the third year in a row after two years of growth. Against its outset level of 2007, imports, however, enjoyed a prominent increase. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016 when imports increased by 36% against the previous year. As a result, imports attained the peak of 318K tonnes. From 2017 to 2019, the growth imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, pineapple juice imports reduced to $131M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. Total imports indicated a pronounced increase from 2007 to 2019: its value increased at an average annual rate of +6.3% over the last twelve-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period.

Imports by Country

In 2019, the Netherlands (87K tonnes) was the main importer of pineapple juice, generating 35% of total imports. France (39K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total imports with a 16% share, followed by Germany (15%), Belgium (12%), Spain (9.5%) and the UK (6.4%).

Imports into the Netherlands increased at an average annual rate of +6.5% from 2007 to 2019. At the same time, Belgium (+19.7%), Spain (+17.8%), Germany (+11.6%) and France (+9.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Belgium emerged as the fastest-growing importer imported in the European Union, with a CAGR of +19.7% from 2007-2019. The UK experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. While the share of the Netherlands (+18 p.p.), Germany (+11 p.p.), France (+10 p.p.), Belgium (+10 p.p.) and Spain (+8.1 p.p.) increased significantly, the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the Netherlands ($35M), France ($24M) and Germany ($20M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2019, with a combined 60% share of total imports. Belgium, the UK and Spain lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 27%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2019, the pineapple juice import price in the European Union amounted to $528 per tonne, waning by -9.9% against the previous year. Overall, the import price showed a perceptible reduction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 when the import price increased by 8.4% year-to-year. As a result, import price attained the peak level of $850 per tonne. From 2010 to 2019, the growth in terms of the import prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was the UK ($649 per tonne), while the Netherlands ($404 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

blacklisting

BLACKLISTING DEPLOYED IN THE BATTLE OVER TECH TRADE

National Security an Overriding Consideration

If there is one defining feature of current U.S. trade policy, it is that national security has become an overriding consideration in how the United States engages China. It is also a focal point of U.S. engagement with its main allied trading partners.

The Trump administration has added many tools to its arsenal in combatting what it refers to as “vectors of economic aggression” by China. Tariffs are only the most visible. The United States – and other countries – are increasingly turning to the practice of “blacklisting” persons and companies that pose a national security risk.

Through controls on exports of particular technologies, governments can either prohibit their sale to foreign entities, governments or individuals, or require the technologies be sold only upon issuance of a government license.

Not New, But Expanded

Controlling the export of commercial technologies that have “dual use” or military applications is a longstanding practice. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 includes a general prohibition on quantitative restrictions on both imports and exports, but contains built-in exceptions that allow for export control regimes.

In the United States, the Export Control Act requires the Secretary of Commerce to establish and maintain a list of controlled items, foreign persons, and end-uses determined to be a threat to U.S. national security and foreign policy for the purpose of regulating the export, reexport and in-country transfer of those technologies and to those entities.

countries turning to blacklisting

Futureproofing

At today’s blistering pace of tech innovation, the lines between technologies that are used commercially in the products we buy as private sector businesses and consumers are increasingly blurred with their potential applications in a military setting.

Under the 2018 Export Control Reform Act, Congress authorized the Commerce Department to review its list of controlled technologies to consider “emerging and foundational technologies” that should be added to its control list.

The technologies contemplated include a hit parade of Sci-Fi innovations such as neural networks and deep learning, swarming technology, self-assembling robots and smart dust (whatever that is), in addition to more recognizable technologies such as quantum computing, additive manufacturing and propulsion technologies.

Special Designations

In addition to technologies that may be controlled for export, the Commerce Department also maintains a Restricted Entity List. Entities designated are subject to a policy of presumed denial for all products, whether on the controlled technologies list or not. American companies may not export to entities on this list except through waivers and specific licenses.

Huawei Technologies, the Chinese telecommunications giant that is chasing global market share in 5G mobile technology, finds itself on the Restricted Entity List, along with all of its overseas affiliates. Other Chinese companies on the list include FiberHome Technologies Group, another 5G network equipment provider, as well as China’s leading artificial intelligence startups Megvii, SenseTime and Yitu Technologies.

The U.S. government is concerned with entities that could engage in industrial and electronic espionage and infiltrate critical U.S. military systems. But the Commerce Department also took the novel step recently of adding companies to its Restricted Entity List that furnish the Chinese state and its security bureaus with technologies used to surveil and repress civil society.

In October 2019, the United States blacklisted 28 Chinese governmental and commercial organizations, citing human rights violations and abuses in China’s campaign targeting Uighurs and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minorities in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. The companies included Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Co. and Zhejiang Dahua Technology Co. which are two of the world’s largest producers of surveillance products as well as several of China’s leading companies in facial and voice recognition.

A Chinese Finger Trap

Last month, as U.S.-China relations continued to deteriorate in very public ways, the U.S. government added two dozen more Chinese governmental and commercial organizations to the Restricted Entity List. The Department of Commerce said they have ties to weapons of mass destruction and military activities.

As with a Chinese finger trap, American companies are now ensnared at both ends. They must comply with U.S. export restrictions but doing so may land them on China’s newly created “Unreliable Entity List”. China created the list as a countermeasure and says it will go after American companies for causing “material damage to the legitimate interests of Chinese companies and relevant industrial sectors” and creating a potential threat to China’s national security.

American cos caught in trap

More Can Play at That Game

The global landscape is actively shifting as countries work to shore up and modernize their export control regimes.

In 2009, the European Union (EU) set up a community-wide regime for the control of exports, transfers, brokering and transit of dual-use items to ensure a common EU list of dual-use items, common criteria for assessments and authorizations throughout the EU.

Last year, Japan and Korea got into a major trade spat when the Japanese government removed South Korea from its so-called “white list” of preferred trading partners for strategic technologies, subjecting some Japanese exports to South Korea to new screening.

Japan’s placement of three chemicals used to make computer chips on the control list resulted in delayed shipments that affected the entire global semiconductor industry since South Korean companies account for nearly two-thirds of the world’s memory chips. South Korea retaliated by dropping Japan from its white list.

One Good Turn Deserves Another

For its part, China deemed its own “Unreliable Entity List” to be unreliable. In January this year (on the same date the U.S.-China Phase One deal was signed in Washington) the National People’s Congress in Beijing published a draft of China’s first comprehensive national Export Control Law, providing China with increased leverage to apply and counteract U.S. export control measures. Safe to say we’ll be reading a lot more about blacklisting in the coming years.

An interesting report to dive deeper:

2018 Report on Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls, U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security

_____________________________________________________________

Andrea Durkin is the Editor-in-Chief of TradeVistas and Founder of Sparkplug, LLC. Ms. Durkin previously served as a U.S. Government trade negotiator and has proudly taught international trade policy and negotiations for the last fifteen years as an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University’s Master of Science in Foreign Service program.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.
metallised yarn

Global Metallised Yarn Market 2020 – Key Insights

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Metallised Yarn And Strip – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Global Trade of  Metallised Yarn 2014-2018

Global exports amounted to 23K tonnes in 2018, picking up by 11% against the previous year. In value terms, metallised yarn exports totaled $253M (IndexBox estimates). In general, exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. Over the period under review, global metallised yarn exports attained their maximum at $261M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

China represented the largest exporter of metallised yarn and strip exported in the world, with the volume of exports recording 13K tonnes, which was approx. 58% of total exports in 2018. It was distantly followed by India (4.2K tonnes) and Turkey (1.3K tonnes), together achieving a 24% share of global exports. The following exporters – Japan (524 tonnes), Germany (428 tonnes), Georgia (414 tonnes) and France (392 tonnes) – each accounted for a 7.8% share of total exports.

China experienced a relatively flat trend pattern with regard to volume of exports of metallised yarn and strip. At the same time, Georgia (+140.7%), Turkey (+16.2%) and India (+7.4%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Georgia emerged as the fastest-growing exporter exported in the world, with a CAGR of +140.7% from 2014-2018. By contrast, Japan (-4.2%), France (-7.2%) and Germany (-11.8%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. India (+4.6 p.p.), Turkey (+2.6 p.p.) and Georgia (+1.8 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the global exports, while China saw its share reduced by -2.2% from 2014 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, China ($109M) remains the largest metallised yarn supplier worldwide, comprising 43% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Japan ($21M), with a 8.4% share of global exports. It was followed by India, with a 6.1% share.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average metallised yarn export price amounted to $11,157 per tonne, coming down by -4% against the previous year. Overall, the metallised yarn export price continues to indicate a slight descent. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2016 when the average export price increased by 9% year-to-year. The global export price peaked at $11,617 per tonne in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Japan ($40,672 per tonne), while India ($3,642 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2014 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

polyethylene

Turkey Ranks As the Largest Market for Imported Polyethylene in the Middle East, with $1B in 2018

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Middle East – Polyethylene – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Polyethylene Exports in the Middle East

The exports totaled 7.8M tonnes in 2018, rising by 27% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +7.3% from 2013 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review.

In value terms, polyethylene exports amounted to $8.8B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

Saudi Arabia was the key exporter of polyethylene in the Middle East, with the volume of exports recording 4.8M tonnes, which was approx. 61% of total exports in 2018. Iran (1,086K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total exports with a 14% share, followed by Qatar (13%) and the United Arab Emirates (8.1%). Kuwait (167K tonnes) took a relatively small share of total exports.

Exports from Saudi Arabia increased at an average annual rate of +8.4% from 2013 to 2018. At the same time, the United Arab Emirates (+20.0%) and Iran (+13.6%) displayed outstripping paces of growth. Moreover, the United Arab Emirates emerged as the fastest-growing exporter exported in the Middle East, with a CAGR of +20.0% from 2013-2018. Qatar experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Kuwait (-8.9%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of Saudi Arabia (+20 p.p.), Iran (+6.6 p.p.) and the United Arab Emirates (+4.8 p.p.) increased significantly, the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Saudi Arabia ($5.2B) remains the largest polyethylene supplier in the Middle East, comprising 59% of total polyethylene exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Iran ($1.2B), with a 14% share of total exports. It was followed by Qatar, with a 14% share.

In Saudi Arabia, polyethylene exports expanded at an average annual rate of +5.1% over the period from 2013-2018. The remaining exporting countries recorded the following average annual rates of exports growth: Iran (+7.9% per year) and Qatar (-5.1% per year).

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the polyethylene export price in the Middle East amounted to $1,128 per tonne, waning by -9.6% against the previous year. Overall, the polyethylene export price continues to indicate a perceptible shrinkage. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when the export price increased by 16% year-to-year. The level of export price peaked at $1,431 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Average prices varied noticeably amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, major exporting countries recorded the following prices: in the United Arab Emirates ($1,245 per tonne) and Qatar ($1,227 per tonne), while Saudi Arabia ($1,080 per tonne) and Kuwait ($1,144 per tonne) were amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Saudi Arabia, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the export price figures.

Polyethylene Imports in the Middle East

In 2018, the amount of polyethylene imported in the Middle East totaled 1.6M tonnes, jumping by 11% against the previous year. Over the period under review, polyethylene imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

In value terms, polyethylene imports totaled $2.1B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

Turkey was the main importer of polyethylene in the Middle East, with the volume of imports accounting for 803K tonnes, which was approx. 51% of total imports in 2018. The United Arab Emirates (271K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total imports with a 17% share, followed by Jordan (7%), Israel (6.3%) and Lebanon (4.8%). The following importers – Saudi Arabia (63K tonnes) and Yemen (43K tonnes) – together made up 6.7% of total imports.

Imports into Turkey increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% from 2013 to 2018. At the same time, Jordan (+8.1%), Lebanon (+2.6%) and Yemen (+2.4%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Jordan emerged as the fastest-growing importer imported in the Middle East, with a CAGR of +8.1% from 2013-2018. By contrast, Israel (-3.0%), the United Arab Emirates (-6.7%) and Saudi Arabia (-11.7%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of Turkey (+12 p.p.) and Jordan (+2.2 p.p.) increased significantly in terms of the total imports from 2013-2018, the share of Saudi Arabia (-3.4 p.p.) and the United Arab Emirates (-7.1 p.p.) displayed negative dynamics. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Turkey ($1B) constitutes the largest market for imported polyethylene in the Middle East, comprising 49% of total polyethylene imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the United Arab Emirates ($362M), with a 17% share of total imports. It was followed by Israel, with a 6.8% share.

Import Prices by Country

The polyethylene import price in the Middle East stood at $1,315 per tonne in 2018, waning by -2.9% against the previous year.

Average prices varied somewhat amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, major importing countries recorded the following prices: in Saudi Arabia ($1,736 per tonne) and Israel ($1,412 per tonne), while Lebanon ($1,167 per tonne) and Jordan ($1,222 per tonne) were amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Saudi Arabia, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform