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France Emerged as the Largest Dried Grapes Producer in the EU

dried grapes

France Emerged as the Largest Dried Grapes Producer in the EU

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Dried Grapes – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the dried grapes market in the European Union amounted to $1B in 2018, flattening at the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed over the period under review.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of dried grapes consumption in 2018 were the UK (98K tonnes), Germany (68K tonnes) and France (56K tonnes), with a combined 55% share of total consumption. These countries were followed by the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Poland, Belgium, Greece, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic, which together accounted for a further 35%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of dried grapes consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Greece, while dried grapes consumption for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($426M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($125M). It was followed by Italy.

The countries with the highest levels of dried grapes per capita consumption in 2018 were the Netherlands (2,466 kg per 1000 persons), the UK (1,470 kg per 1000 persons) and Belgium (1,080 kg per 1000 persons).

Production in the EU

In 2018, the amount of dried grapes produced in the European Union amounted to 84K tonnes, flattening at the previous year. In general, dried grapes production, however, continues to indicate a significant drop. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when production volume increased by 16% y-o-y. In that year, dried grapes production attained its peak volume of 130K tonnes. From 2012 to 2018, dried grapes production growth failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of dried grapes production in 2018 were France (31K tonnes), Greece (21K tonnes) and Hungary (5.3K tonnes), with a combined 69% share of total production. These countries were followed by Portugal, Slovakia, Romania and Spain, which together accounted for a further 19%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of dried grapes production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Slovakia, while dried grapes production for the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the production figures.

Exports in the EU

The exports totaled 70K tonnes in 2018, approximately reflecting the previous year. In general, dried grapes exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In value terms, dried grapes exports totaled $175M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Greece (18K tonnes), the Netherlands (13K tonnes), Germany (9.8K tonnes) and Belgium (9.2K tonnes) represented the major exporters of dried grapes exported in the European Union, generating 71% of total export. It was distantly followed by the UK (4,306 tonnes) and Latvia (3,768 tonnes), together creating an 11% share of total exports. Denmark (2,442 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Denmark, while exports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest dried grapes exporters in the European Union were Greece ($51M), the Netherlands ($31M) and Germany ($25M), with a combined 61% share of total exports. Belgium, the UK, Denmark and Latvia lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 23%.

Latvia experienced the highest growth rate of market size, among the main exporting countries over the period under review, while exports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the dried grapes export price in the European Union amounted to $2,495 per tonne, picking up by 11% against the previous year. Over the last eleven years, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.9%.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Greece ($2,859 per tonne), while Latvia ($1,592 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Greece, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

The volume imports stood at 391K tonnes in 2018, lowering by -3.4% against the previous year. In general, dried grapes imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern, in accordance with the overall dynamic of the market. In value terms, dried grapes imports amounted to $791M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

The imports of the three major importers of dried grapes, namely the UK, Germany and the Netherlands, represented more than half of total import. France (26K tonnes) held a 6.8% share (based on tonnes) of total imports, which put it in second place, followed by Belgium (5.5%), Italy (5.5%) and Spain (4.7%).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Spain, while imports for the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the imports figures.

In value terms, the largest dried grapes importing markets in the European Union were the UK ($199M), Germany ($163M) and the Netherlands ($109M), together comprising 60% of total imports. These countries were followed by France, Italy, Belgium and Spain, which together accounted for a further 21%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the dried grapes import price in the European Union amounted to $2,021 per tonne, rising by 11% against the previous year. Over the last eleven-year period, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.7%. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when the import price increased by 27% against the previous year. The level of import price peaked at $2,503 per tonne in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, import prices remained at a lower figure.

Average prices varied somewhat amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, major importing countries recorded the following prices: in France ($2,204 per tonne) and Germany ($2,105 per tonne), while Spain ($1,615 per tonne) and Belgium ($1,776 per tonne) were amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

tuna

Tuna Market in Germany Reached $1.5B

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Germany – Tuna (Prepared Or Preserved) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the tuna market in Germany amounted to $1.5B in 2018, surging by 12% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. Tuna market size peaked at $1.6B in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, consumption remained at a lower figure.

Production in Germany

In 2018, the amount of tuna (prepared or preserved) produced in Germany totaled 163K tonnes, increasing by 3.1% against the previous year. Overall, tuna production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Exports from Germany

In 2018, the exports of tuna (prepared or preserved) from Germany totaled 15K tonnes, going up by 8.9% against the previous year. In value terms, tuna exports stood at $75M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

Austria (2.9K tonnes), Belgium (1.8K tonnes) and the Netherlands (1.5K tonnes) were the main destinations of tuna exports from Germany, together comprising 42% of total exports. Romania, Poland, France, Denmark, Hungary, the UK, Finland, Switzerland and the Czech Republic lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 43%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by Romania, while exports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest markets for tuna exported from Germany were Austria ($15M), Belgium ($11M) and the Netherlands ($7.9M), with a combined 45% share of total exports.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average tuna export price amounted to $5,047 per tonne, jumping by 15% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.8%. The export price peaked at $5,726 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, export prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices for the major foreign markets. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Switzerland ($6,474 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Hungary ($2,890 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

Imports into Germany

In 2018, the imports of tuna (prepared or preserved) into Germany stood at 93K tonnes, surging by 10% against the previous year. In general, tuna imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when imports increased by 23% y-o-y. Imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term. In value terms, tuna imports totaled $466M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

Ecuador (23K tonnes), the Philippines (16K tonnes) and Papua New Guinea (13K tonnes) were the main suppliers of tuna imports to Germany, together accounting for 55% of total imports. These countries were followed by the Netherlands, Spain, Viet Nam and Italy, which together accounted for a further 30%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main suppliers, was attained by Spain, while imports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Ecuador ($116M), the Philippines ($68M) and Papua New Guinea ($61M) appeared to be the largest tuna suppliers to Germany, with a combined 53% share of total imports. The Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Viet Nam lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average tuna import price amounted to $5,005 per tonne, going up by 11% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the import price indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2018: it increased at an average annual rate of +4.1% over the last eleven-year period.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Italy ($7,507 per tonne), while the price for Viet Nam ($3,454 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

frozen fruit

Frozen Fruit and Nut Market in the EU Grew Slightly to $2.4B

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Frozen Fruit And Nuts – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the frozen fruit and nuts market in the European Union amounted to $2.4B in 2018, growing by 1.5% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.5% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Over the period under review, the frozen fruit and nuts market attained its maximum level in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Consumption By Country

The country with the largest volume of frozen fruit and nuts consumption was Germany (369K tonnes), comprising approx. 25% of total volume. Moreover, frozen fruit and nuts consumption in Germany exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest consumer, France (184K tonnes), twofold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Italy (149K tonnes), with a 10% share.

In Germany, frozen fruit and nuts consumption expanded at an average annual rate of +2.2% over the period from 2007-2018. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of consumption growth: France (+1.8% per year) and Italy (-5.0% per year).

In value terms, Germany ($632M), France ($389M) and Italy ($272M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 54% share of the total market. These countries were followed by Poland, the UK, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Spain, Hungary and Romania, which together accounted for a further 37%.

The countries with the highest levels of frozen fruit and nuts per capita consumption in 2018 were Belgium (6,286 kg per 1000 persons), Austria (5,257 kg per 1000 persons) and Germany (4,509 kg per 1000 persons).

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

Driven by increasing demand for frozen fruit and nuts in the European Union, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.2% for the period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 1.6M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 951K tonnes of frozen fruit and nuts were produced in the European Union; shrinking by -5.9% against the previous year. Overall, frozen fruit and nuts production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. Over the period under review, frozen fruit and nuts production attained its maximum volume at 1.1M tonnes in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Production By Country

Poland (351K tonnes) remains the largest frozen fruit and nuts producing country in the European Union, comprising approx. 37% of total volume. It was followed by Spain (127K tonnes) and Italy (122K tonnes), with the combined share of 26%.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in Poland stood at +1.5%. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: Spain (-1.2% per year) and Italy (-5.8% per year).

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the exports of frozen fruit and nuts in the European Union stood at 885K tonnes, rising by 2.6% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. In value terms, frozen fruit and nuts exports totaled $1.7B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

Poland represented the key exporter of frozen fruit and nuts exported in the European Union, with the volume of exports recording 349K tonnes, which was near 39% of total exports in 2018. The Netherlands (117K tonnes) held a 13% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by Belgium (9.3%), Spain (5.9%) and Germany (5.8%). Italy (34K tonnes), Greece (32K tonnes), France (18K tonnes), Bulgaria (17K tonnes), Austria (17K tonnes), Portugal (15K tonnes) and Lithuania (15K tonnes) occupied a little share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2018, average annual rates of growth with regard to frozen fruit and nuts exports from Poland stood at +2.2%. At the same time, Portugal (+10.7%), France (+7.4%), Bulgaria (+5.0%), the Netherlands (+4.3%), Germany (+3.5%), Italy (+3.3%), Lithuania (+2.0%), Spain (+1.7%) and Greece (+1.4%) displayed positive paces of growth.

Moreover, Portugal emerged as the fastest-growing exporter exported in the European Union, with a CAGR of +10.7% from 2007-2018. Belgium experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Austria (-3.6%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period.

In value terms, Poland ($563M) remains the largest frozen fruit and nuts supplier in the European Union, comprising 33% of total frozen fruit and nuts exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the Netherlands ($229M), with a 13% share of total exports. It was followed by Belgium, with a 11% share.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the frozen fruit and nuts export price in the European Union amounted to $1,931 per tonne, surging by 5.8% against the previous year. Overall, the frozen fruit and nuts export price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 an increase of 27% year-to-year. The level of export price peaked at $2,304 per tonne in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Lithuania ($3,052 per tonne), while Greece ($1,450 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 1.4M tonnes of frozen fruit and nuts were imported in the European Union; surging by 2.5% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.8% over the period from 2007 to 2018. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the near future. In value terms, frozen fruit and nuts imports amounted to $2.6B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

Germany represented the largest importer of frozen fruit and nuts imported in the European Union, with the volume of imports finishing at 396K tonnes, which was approx. 28% of total imports in 2018. It was distantly followed by France (183K tonnes), the Netherlands (154K tonnes), Belgium (136K tonnes), Poland (93K tonnes), the UK (89K tonnes) and Austria (63K tonnes), together committing a 52% share of total imports.

In value terms, the largest frozen fruit and nuts importing markets in the European Union were Germany ($671M), France ($386M) and the Netherlands ($257M), together comprising 50% of total imports. Belgium, the UK, Poland and Austria lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 28%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the frozen fruit and nuts import price in the European Union amounted to $1,903 per tonne, jumping by 5.4% against the previous year. Overall, the frozen fruit and nuts import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Average prices varied somewhat amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, major importing countries recorded the following prices: in the UK ($2,256 per tonne) and France ($2,102 per tonne), while the Netherlands ($1,664 per tonne) and Germany ($1,696 per tonne) were amongst the lowest.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

frozen crustacean

The Growth Of Frozen Crustaceans Market in the EU Slowed Down

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Frozen Crustaceans – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the frozen crustaceans market in the European Union amounted to $7.3B in 2018, remaining stable against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 12% y-o-y. In that year, the frozen crustaceans market reached its peak level of $7.3B. From 2015 to 2018, the growth of the frozen crustaceans market practically regained its momentum.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of frozen crustaceans consumption in 2018 were Germany (214K tonnes), Spain (172K tonnes) and France (104K tonnes), with a combined 58% share of total consumption. These countries were followed by Italy, Poland, the UK and the Netherlands, which together accounted for a further 29%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of frozen crustaceans consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by the UK, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($1.8B), Spain ($1.3B) and France ($927M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, together comprising 56% of the total market.

The countries with the highest levels of frozen crustaceans per capita consumption in 2018 were Spain (3,692 kg per 1000 persons), Germany (2,611 kg per 1000 persons) and the Netherlands (2,511 kg per 1000 persons).

Production in the EU

In 2018, the frozen crustaceans production in the European Union amounted to 435K tonnes, jumping by 3.5% against the previous year. Overall, frozen crustaceans production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Production By Country

Germany (188K tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of frozen crustaceans production, comprising approx. 43% of total production. Moreover, frozen crustaceans production in Germany exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest producer, Poland (65K tonnes), threefold. Spain (39K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total production with a 9% share.

In Germany, frozen crustaceans production remained relatively stable over the period from 2007-2018. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: Poland (+0.1% per year) and Spain (-1.5% per year).

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of frozen crustaceans exported in the European Union stood at 261K tonnes, picking up by 6.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, frozen crustaceans exports, however, continue to indicate a slight descent.

In value terms, frozen crustaceans exports amounted to $2.3B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +1.5% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. Over the period under review, frozen crustaceans exports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

The exports of the four major exporters of frozen crustaceans, namely Denmark, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands, represented more than two-thirds of total export. The UK (23K tonnes) occupied the next position in the ranking, followed by France (13K tonnes). All these countries together took near 14% share of total exports. Ireland (11K tonnes) took a relatively small share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Denmark ($434M), Spain ($418M) and the Netherlands ($373M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, together accounting for 52% of total exports.

Export Prices by Country

The frozen crustaceans export price in the European Union stood at $8,976 per tonne in 2018, declining by -3.9% against the previous year. Over the last decade, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.6%. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when the export price increased by 17% year-to-year. The level of export price peaked at $9,340 per tonne in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was France ($11,146 per tonne), while Belgium ($7,334 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Denmark, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the frozen crustaceans imports in the European Union totaled 674K tonnes, growing by 2.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, frozen crustaceans imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In value terms, frozen crustaceans imports stood at $6B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% over the period from 2007 to 2018.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Spain (177K tonnes), distantly followed by France (112K tonnes), Italy (87K tonnes), Belgium (53K tonnes), the Netherlands (48K tonnes), the UK (48K tonnes), Germany (36K tonnes) and Portugal (32K tonnes) were the major importers of frozen crustaceans, together comprising 88% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Spain ($1.4B), France ($1B) and Italy ($737M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 52% share of total imports. These countries were followed by Belgium, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and Portugal, which together accounted for a further 37%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the frozen crustaceans import price in the European Union amounted to $8,975 per tonne, approximately equating the previous year. Over the last eleven-year period, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.6%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 when the import price increased by 16% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for frozen crustaceans reached their peak level of $9,037 per tonne. From 2015 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for frozen crustaceans remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($11,996 per tonne), while Spain ($7,794 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

cheese

European Fresh Cheese Market – Italy’s Output Doubled Over the Last Five Years

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Fresh Cheese – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the fresh cheese market in the European Union amounted to $12.6B in 2018, remaining stable against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Overall, fresh cheese consumption continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 15% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the fresh cheese market attained its maximum level at $14B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption remained at a lower figure.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of fresh cheese consumption in 2018 were Italy (967K tonnes), France (585K tonnes) and Germany (548K tonnes), together accounting for 52% of total consumption. These countries were followed by the UK, Poland, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Sweden, which together accounted for a further 37%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of fresh cheese consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Italy ($3.8B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the UK ($1.7B). It was followed by France.

The countries with the highest levels of fresh cheese per capita consumption in 2018 were Italy (16,290 kg per 1000 persons), Belgium (13,307 kg per 1000 persons) and Poland (10,450 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of fresh cheese per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

Driven by increasing demand for fresh cheese in the European Union, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to decelerate, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +0.7% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 4.3M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 4.4M tonnes of fresh cheese were produced in the European Union; going up by 1.6% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when production volume increased by 11% y-o-y. Over the period under review, fresh cheese production attained its peak figure volume in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fresh cheese production amounted to $11.2B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, fresh cheese production continues to indicate a mild shrinkage. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 15% y-o-y. Over the period under review, fresh cheese production attained its peak figure level at $14.3B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, production remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of fresh cheese production in 2018 were Germany (928K tonnes), Italy (927K tonnes) and France (688K tonnes), with a combined 58% share of total production. Poland, the UK, Denmark, Belgium, Spain and Lithuania lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of fresh cheese production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the fresh cheese exports in the European Union totaled 1.6M tonnes, growing by 2.1% against the previous year. The total exports indicated resilient growth from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +6.1% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese exports increased by +91.0% against 2007 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 with an increase of 11% against the previous year. Over the period under review, fresh cheese exports attained their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fresh cheese exports amounted to $5.6B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated remarkable growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +6.1% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese exports increased by +30.3% against 2015 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when exports increased by 23% y-o-y. Over the period under review, fresh cheese exports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

Germany was the largest exporting country with an export of about 516K tonnes, which resulted at 32% of total exports. It was distantly followed by France (221K tonnes), Denmark (183K tonnes), Italy (181K tonnes), Poland (96K tonnes) and Belgium (86K tonnes), together achieving a 48% share of total exports. The UK (67K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

Exports from Germany increased at an average annual rate of +5.5% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Belgium (+15.3%), Poland (+7.9%), Italy (+6.9%), Denmark (+6.4%), the UK (+5.9%) and France (+2.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Belgium emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +15.3% from 2007-2018. From 2007 to 2018, the share of Germany, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Poland, France and the UK increased by +14%, +5.9%, +5.7%, +4.3%, +3.4%, +3% and +2% percentage points, while the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest fresh cheese markets in the European Union were Germany ($1.6B), Italy ($964M) and Denmark ($638M), with a combined 58% share of total exports. France, Belgium, Poland and the UK lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 25%.

In terms of the main exporting countries, Belgium experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The fresh cheese export price in the European Union stood at $3,504 per tonne in 2018, picking up by 2.4% against the previous year. In general, the fresh cheese export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 18% y-o-y. In that year, the export prices for fresh cheese reached their peak level of $4,179 per tonne. From 2009 to 2018, the growth in terms of the export prices for fresh cheese failed to regain its momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Italy ($5,330 per tonne), while France ($2,660 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the export price figures.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of fresh cheese imported in the European Union stood at 1.3M tonnes, increasing by 5.4% against the previous year. The total imports indicated remarkable growth from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese imports increased by +76.1% against 2007 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 10% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fresh cheese imports amounted to $4.4B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total imports indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese imports increased by +29.3% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 21% year-to-year. The level of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of fresh cheese imports in 2018 were Italy (221K tonnes), the UK (189K tonnes), Germany (137K tonnes), the Netherlands (127K tonnes), France (118K tonnes), Spain (95K tonnes) and Belgium (77K tonnes), together resulting at 74% of total import. Austria (39K tonnes), Poland (33K tonnes), Romania (33K tonnes), the Czech Republic (26K tonnes) and Ireland (25K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Ireland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest fresh cheese importing markets in the European Union were Italy ($778M), the UK ($573M) and Germany ($507M), with a combined 42% share of total imports. France, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Poland, Romania, Ireland and the Czech Republic lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 44%.

In terms of the main importing countries, Poland experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the fresh cheese import price in the European Union amounted to $3,409 per tonne, rising by 3.7% against the previous year. Overall, the fresh cheese import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 an increase of 17% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for fresh cheese attained their peak level of $3,996 per tonne. From 2009 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for fresh cheese failed to regain its momentum.

Average prices varied somewhat amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, major importing countries recorded the following prices: in France ($3,885 per tonne) and Austria ($3,750 per tonne), while the Netherlands ($2,750 per tonne) and the UK ($3,029 per tonne) were amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

fish fillet

Preserved Fish Fillet Market in the EU Flattened At $750M

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Fish Fillets (Dried, Salted Or In Brine, But Not Smoked) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the preserved fish fillet market in the European Union amounted to $751M in 2018, approximately equating the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, preserved fish fillet consumption continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. Over the period under review, the preserved fish fillet market reached its peak figure level in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of preserved fish fillet consumption in 2018 were Italy (28K tonnes), Poland (16K tonnes) and the UK (13K tonnes), with a combined 49% share of total consumption. Spain, the Netherlands, France, Romania, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Belgium, Hungary and Greece lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 39%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of preserved fish fillet consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest preserved fish fillet markets in the European Union were France ($138M), Italy ($132M) and the Netherlands ($110M), together comprising 51% of the total market. These countries were followed by Spain, Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Portugal and the UK, which together accounted for a further 35%.

The countries with the highest levels of preserved fish fillet per capita consumption in 2018 were Italy (469 kg per 1000 persons), the Netherlands (463 kg per 1000 persons) and Poland (407 kg per 1000 persons).

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

Driven by increasing demand for preserved fish fillet in the European Union, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +2.6% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 139K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Exports in the EU

The exports totaled 30K tonnes in 2018. In general, preserved fish fillet exports continue to indicate a slight contraction. In value terms, preserved fish fillet exports amounted to $160M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Denmark (17K tonnes) represented the key exporter of fish fillets (dried, salted or in brine, but not smoked), committing 56% of total exports. Sweden (4,361 tonnes) took the second position in the ranking, followed by Spain (3,007 tonnes), the UK (2,113 tonnes) and Germany (1,526 tonnes). All these countries together took approx. 36% share of total exports. The following exporters – Italy (554 tonnes) and Belgium (526 tonnes) – each finished at a 3.6% share of total exports.

Exports from Denmark increased at an average annual rate of +8.1% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Belgium (+16.1%) and Spain (+4.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Belgium emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +16.1% from 2007-2018. By contrast, Italy (-1.5%), the UK (-4.7%), Sweden (-5.7%) and Germany (-12.8%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of Denmark (+33 p.p.) and Spain (+3.6 p.p.) increased significantly in terms of the total exports from 2007-2018, the share of the UK (-4.8 p.p.), Sweden (-13 p.p.) and Germany (-17.7 p.p.) displayed negative dynamics. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

Imports in the EU

The imports totaled 60K tonnes in 2018, jumping by 9.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, preserved fish fillet imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

In value terms, preserved fish fillet imports totaled $386M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, preserved fish fillet imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when imports increased by 9.7% y-o-y. In that year, preserved fish fillet imports reached their peak of $433M. From 2015 to 2018, the growth of preserved fish fillet imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of preserved fish fillet imports in 2018 were Italy (14K tonnes), Denmark (12K tonnes) and Spain (9.8K tonnes), together recording 60% of total import. The Netherlands (6,113 tonnes) ranks next in terms of the total imports with a 10% share, followed by Sweden (8%), Portugal (5.9%) and Germany (5.4%).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Italy ($119M), Spain ($73M) and Denmark ($51M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 63% share of total imports. The Netherlands, Sweden, Germany and Portugal lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 28%.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

salt

Grains of Global Salt Trade

Salt is readily available almost everywhere on Earth – why do we still trade so much of it?

Salt wars, salt taxes and salt revolts – how and why we traded salt for millennia

Over thousands of years of humanity, civilizations invested enormous symbolism, prevented famine, waged wars, built and lost empires over a commodity that we now blithely toss by the millions of tons all over our icy streets in wintertime – salt.

Salt has such an important and varied role in health, religious life, death, wars and trade that a 450-page New York Times bestseller – called Salt, A World History by Mark Kurlansky – was written about it.

Sodium chloride (known commonly as salt) is versatile. Considered precious and therefore a source of great power throughout ancient history, in the modern era, refined salt is common and used extensively throughout the chemical industry. Gourmet varieties like fleur de sel season our food, but most of the salt mined is low-grade and deployed to de-ice our roadways. Given modern extraction techniques and geological understanding, we know salt is plentiful, so we no longer fight wars over it, but we do still trade it.

For sustenance and power

Ancient civilizations founded major cities and built empires near sources of salt, conquering and monopolizing saltworks as needed to maintain power. The ancient Mayans controlled salt resources at Salinas de los Nueve Cerros, an area in Guatemala where natural salt springs flowed into a river gully, enabling those who controlled it to trade salt and salted goods such as cured hides with downstream consumers.

Egyptians were among the earliest civilizations to preserve food on a large scale as insurance against crop failure in dry years. They evaporated seawater from the Nile Delta, but also likely procured salt through African trade with Libya and Ethiopia, as well as through Mediterranean trade. Trade spread knowledge about the use of salt for preservation (and taste) but also, according to Kurlansky, gave rise to trade in salted foods such as cured meats and fish, which “would shape economies for the next four millennia.”

From tuna, sardines, mackerel to sturgeon, salted fish was traded extensively as both food and medicine. Fishing industries flourished around port cities, especially based on trade in Atlantic cod, a fatless fish that was easily dried and salt-cured for transport. To support cod trade, the fearsome Vikings established “salt routes” that delivered delicate bay salt from Normandy back to the Baltic.

Sfax port and salt beds

For wealth and control of trade

As the saying goes, “All roads lead to Rome.” One of the most famous was the Via Salaria or Salt Road that connected Rome to the saltworks at Ostia on the coast. Centuries later, the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa staked their trading dominance on salt. Although Venice produced salt for themselves, the Venetian merchants realized they could make more money by controlling trade in salt.

Venice and Genoa contested control of as many saltworks throughout the Mediterranean as possible, jointly monopolizing the amount of salt available on the market and therefore the price at which salt was sold. Although the Genoese had a more sophisticated maritime industry and larger ships to hold bulk salt, the government in Venice ensured a landed price for importers by taxing its citizens. The subsidies to importers produced profits from salt trade with which to purchase Indian spices that they turned around and sold at lower prices than their competitors. The government plowed salt tax revenues back into loans to merchants, enabling Venice to dominate trade in spices, grain and textiles.

To wage war

Access to adequate salts stocks could affect the outcome of wars and is a recurring theme from early warfare through the U.S. Civil War. The livestock used to feed soldiers require salt, cavalry and workhorses hauling supplies and artillery require salt, and salt was needed to disinfect wounds. Napolean lost hundreds of thousands of troops in retreat from Russia due to starvation and lack of salt to treat wounds. The Union blocked Confederate ports in the south from receiving British salt and destroyed saltworks to weaken Confederate efforts. The Romans taxed their salt advantage to raise money to fight the Phoenicians and even paid soldiers in salt – the origins of the word “salary”.

To raise government revenue

Many governments have taxed this essential commodity, but their policies turned out to be not worth their salt. Protests against salt taxes were the proximate cause of many consequential revolts throughout history.

For centuries, French monarchs forced their subjects to buy salt from royal depots. Grievances against this practice helped spark a revolution against Louis XVI. The Moscow uprising of 1648 is known as the Moscow Salt Riot, instigated by the government’s replacement of different taxes with a universal salt tax to replenish the state treasury.

But perhaps the most well-known rebellion against oppression was the 1930 Salt March led by Mohandas Gandhi to protest British rule in India. For centuries, India had mined its ample natural salt fields, deposits and lakes. In particular, Orissa, located on India’s east coast, is home to a long and deep tract of natural salt beds, which even the poorest of residents could collect using simple techniques. Salt was traded for cotton, food and other necessities.

While it would have been convenient and cheap for the British government to avail itself of Orissa salt for gunpowder to fight its many wars with the French, doing so would have been detrimental to salt from Liverpool that could not compete on price or quality. The British took over salt production in Orissa, banning private production or sale, and subsequently imposed internal customs checkpoints to prevent smuggling. Duties were placed on salt from Orissa that were matched by duties on imports, generating government revenue and raising the price of salt for all Indians. Eventually, the government abandoned the Orissa saltworks causing a salt shortage and famine.

This breaking point became a foil for Ghandi’s “salt campaign,” a 240-mile march to the beach at Dandi where he scraped up a handful of salt in defiance of the British law that mandated the government monopoly. Soon thereafter, ordinary Indians resumed openly gathering and selling salt, fueling a movement that opened the door to future negotiations toward independence.

Today, India is a globally competitive producer with nearly 12,000 different salt manufacturers, mostly small scale, but still heavily regulated by the central government’s Salt Commissioner.

Salt trade through camel caravans in Mali

For security

Salt production was undertaken in China as early as 1,000 BC during the Xia dynasty and the Chinese can be credited with employing shaft wells, salt solution mining and percussion drilling techniques hundreds of years before anyone else.

China also has a longer legacy of state-control over production and trade of salt. Prices were kept artificially high. Salt revenues helped fund the Great Wall to defend against the Huns. Still today, the China National Salt Industry Corporation employs over 48,000 people charged with overseeing the national industry and China’s annual production of some 68.5 million tons.

For highways and factories

The many wars fought over production and trade of salt seem ironic and tragic in hindsight, considering that nearly every country in the world has salt deposits, not to mention that the salt content in the oceans is nearly unlimited.

Of course, today we enjoy the benefits of refrigeration, flash-freezing processes, and efficient transportation which all eliminate the need to preserve food by salt. Widespread use of modern drilling techniques and vacuum evaporators mean we can extract all the salt the world needs.

Why trade salt today?

Uses of salt in 2018 in US

The U.S. profile of salt consumption largely mirrors the way salt is used in most parts of the world. In 2018, 43 percent of salt consumed in United States went to de-ice our highways.

Another 39 percent was consumed by the chemical industry. Sodium chloride is a key raw material in the production of chlorine and caustic soda, which are used to manufacture glass, paper, rubber, PVC for construction, the dyes in textiles, as well as in water treatment and pharmaceuticals.

Just six percent went to agricultural and food processing. We can only eat so much of the stuff. Despite producing 42 million tons of salt worth $2.3 billion in 2018, we imported another 17 million tons, mostly from Chile, Canada and Mexico, mostly for our roadways and factories.

Who wins today’s salt wars?

These days, salt is traded peacefully – the wars are simply for market share. Leading salt exporters include The Netherlands, Germany, India, Chile and the United States. Given salt’s lead role in industrial manufacturing, it should be no surprise that the leading consumers of traded salt are Japan, China, Germany and the United States.

But while the chemical industry relies on sodium chloride to make so many things in our households, the majority of salt we pull from the Earth and trade around the world now lands unceremoniously beneath our feet and our car tires in winter.

________________________________________________________________

Andrea Durkin is the Editor-in-Chief of TradeVistas and Founder of Sparkplug, LLC. Ms. Durkin previously served as a U.S. Government trade negotiator and has proudly taught international trade policy and negotiations for the last fourteen years as an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University’s Master of Science in Foreign Service program.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.
pear

Global Pear Market – Russia, Indonesia, and Germany Are the Largest Importers in the World

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Pears – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global pear market revenue amounted to $27.3B in 2018, increasing by 4.7% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +2.7% over the period from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 14% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the global pear market attained its maximum level at $30.8B in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country

The country with the largest volume of pear consumption was China (16M tonnes), accounting for 66% of total consumption. Moreover, pear consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest consumer, Italy (689K tonnes), more than tenfold. The U.S. (658K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total consumption with a 2.7% share.

From 2008 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in China stood at +2.1%. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of consumption growth: Italy (+0.2% per year) and the U.S. (+0.9% per year).

In value terms, China ($17.5B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Italy ($887M). It was followed by the U.S..

The countries with the highest levels of pear per capita consumption in 2018 were Argentina (14,247 kg per 1000 persons), Italy (11,598 kg per 1000 persons) and China (11,233 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pear per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Argentina, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for pear worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.9% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 28M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the global pear production stood at 25M tonnes, surging by 1.8% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.5% over the period from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when production volume increased by 6.2% year-to-year. The global pear production peaked at 26M tonnes in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure. The general positive trend in terms of pear output was largely conditioned by a mild increase of the harvested area and measured growth in yield figures.

In value terms, pear production amounted to $27.7B in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +3.1% over the period from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 with an increase of 16% against the previous year. The global pear production peaked at $31.3B in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Production By Country

China (17M tonnes) remains the largest pear producing country worldwide, comprising approx. 68% of total production. Moreover, pear production in China exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest producer, Argentina (954K tonnes), more than tenfold. Italy (767K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total production with a 3.1% share.

In China, pear production increased at an average annual rate of +2.2% over the period from 2008-2018. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: Argentina (+2.6% per year) and Italy (-0.0% per year).

Harvested Area 2007-2018

In 2018, the global pear harvested area stood at 1.4M ha, approximately mirroring the previous year. Overall, the pear harvested area continues to indicate a slight contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 with an increase of 2% against the previous year. The global pear harvested area peaked at 1.6M ha in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, harvested area stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Yield 2007-2018

Global average pear yield amounted to 18 tonne per ha in 2018, going up by 2.8% against the previous year. The yield figure increased at an average annual rate of +2.8% over the period from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017 with an increase of 7.2% against the previous year. The global pear yield peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports amounted to 2.8M tonnes in 2018, jumping by 4.6% against the previous year. Overall, pear exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when exports increased by 5.7% y-o-y. The global exports peaked at 2.8M tonnes in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, pear exports stood at $2.7B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, pear exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when exports increased by 11% year-to-year. In that year, global pear exports reached their peak of $2.8B. From 2014 to 2018, the growth of global pear exports failed to regain its momentum.

Exports by Country

In 2018, China (544K tonnes), distantly followed by the Netherlands (337K tonnes), Argentina (317K tonnes), South Africa (302K tonnes), Belgium (288K tonnes), Italy (158K tonnes), Chile (156K tonnes), Spain (145K tonnes) and the U.S. (132K tonnes) represented the major exporters of pears, together achieving 86% of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by South Africa, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, China ($602M), the Netherlands ($381M) and Argentina ($294M) were the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, with a combined 48% share of global exports.

China experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, in terms of the main exporting countries over the last decade, while the other global leaders experienced mixed trends in the exports figures.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average pear export price amounted to $962 per tonne, approximately reflecting the previous year. Over the period under review, the pear export price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 an increase of 15% y-o-y. In that year, the average export prices for pears reached their peak level of $1,127 per tonne. From 2014 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average export prices for pears failed to regain its momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Italy ($1,299 per tonne), while South Africa ($636 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

Global imports amounted to 2.7M tonnes in 2018, rising by 3% against the previous year. In general, pear imports, however, continue to indicate a mild contraction. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 with an increase of 7.3% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global pear imports reached their peak figure at 3.1M tonnes in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, pear imports amounted to $2.7B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, pear imports, however, continue to indicate a measured drop. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017 with an increase of 13% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global pear imports attained their peak figure at $3.3B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of pear imports in 2018 were Russia (271K tonnes), Indonesia (187K tonnes), Germany (185K tonnes), Brazil (158K tonnes), the UK (138K tonnes), the Netherlands (129K tonnes), the U.S. (123K tonnes), France (116K tonnes), Viet Nam (100K tonnes), Belarus (83K tonnes), China, Hong Kong SAR (82K tonnes) and Italy (80K tonnes), together accounting for 61% of total import.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Belarus, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($244M), Russia ($202M) and Indonesia ($147M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, together accounting for 22% of global imports. Brazil, Viet Nam, the U.S., the UK, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Belarus and China, Hong Kong SAR lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 37%.

Belarus recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last decade, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average pear import price amounted to $994 per tonne, stabilizing at the previous year. Overall, the pear import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 an increase of 7.4% against the previous year. In that year, the average import prices for pears attained their peak level of $1,108 per tonne. From 2014 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average import prices for pears remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Viet Nam ($1,414 per tonne), while China, Hong Kong SAR ($577 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Viet Nam, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

Blijleven

Total Produce – Haluco Appoints Dirk Willem Blijleven as Chief Commercial Officer

Total Produce – Haluco is pleased to announce the appointment of Dirk Willem Blijleven as Chief Commercial Officer (CCO) and member of the Board of Directors of TP Haluco, effective February 1st, 2020.

An accomplished leader with significant experience working across the supply chain and diverse markets, Blijleven, 42 has worked in the food & fresh industry for more than two decades. Most recently Manager Buying for Aldi Netherlands, having spent nine years at Aldi Nord GmbH & Co. in senior leadership roles, Blijleven’s previous experience includes Sales & Marketing positions in the Greenery, the Dutch Flower Group and Driscoll’s.

Speaking of the appointment, Lorcan O’Connor, Total Produce Regional Managing Director for the Netherlands welcomed Blijleven to TP Haluco: “Dirk Willem has a demonstrable track record in delivering efficiencies and synergies from scale and in embracing change; meeting challenges, harnessing market opportunities and delivering growth. I wish him every success in his new role at what is an important juncture in the evolution of TP Haluco.”

Jan van der Lugt, founder and co-owner of TP Haluco adds: “Dirk Willem joins TP Haluco during a period of considerable change across the wider horticultural sector in the Netherlands. Customer-focused, Blijleven is a strong communicator and a consensus builder with strong leadership skills and a clear vision. As such, the Board and I are confident that Dirk Willem is the right person to deliver value to our customers and shareholders as our company enters its next chapter of transition and growth.”

On assuming the position, Blijleven says: “I am honored to have been appointed TP Haluco’s CCO. Ours is an organization dedicated to bringing together the collective resources and core competencies of diverse growers in the Netherlands and worldwide. I will do my best to serve all of our stakeholders by helping to empower our growers and our people to fulfill their ambition and their passion to make a difference.”

___________________________________________________________

About Total Produce – Haluco Holding BV
Total Produce – Haluco Holding offers an extensive range of Dutch open field- and glasshouse vegetables grown by an unrivaled network of exceptional, experienced local producers. Committed
to bringing the grower and the consumer ever closer together, Total Produce – Haluco Holding point of difference lies in the passion of our people, the efficiency with which we bring product to market and the consistency and quality of our produce. As part of the Total Produce family, we are uniquely positioned to meet customer expectations of 52 week supply; complementing local supply with exceptional produce from across the globe. Serving the retail, wholesale and foodservice sectors, Total Produce – Haluco Holding is a complete fresh produce solution provider – offering a comprehensive menu of services to our customers ranging from simple service provision to complete Category Management.
www.haluco.nl

About Total Produce Plc.
Total Produce is today one of the world’s largest and most accomplished fresh produce producers and providers. Local at heart, Global by nature, Total Produce operates out of 39 countries while serving many more. Our industry leading vertically integrated supply chain extends across the globe incorporating over 260 facilities including farms, vessels, manufacturing facilities, cold storage warehousing and packhouses. Growing, sourcing, importing, packaging, marketing and distributing over 300 lines of fresh produce, Total Produce’s range extends from the more familiar to the truly exotic. www.totalproduce.com

cabbage

Global Cabbage Market to Reach 80M Tonnes by 2025

IndexBox published a report: ‘World – Cabbage And Other Brassicas – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global cabbage market revenue amounted to $39.4B in 2018, dropping by -3% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +3.1% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when the market value increased by 14% year-to-year. Global cabbage consumption peaked at $43.7B in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country

The country with the largest volume of cabbage consumption was China (33M tonnes), comprising approx. 45% of total consumption. Moreover, cabbage consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest consumer, India (9.2M tonnes), fourfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Russia (3.7M tonnes), with a 5.2% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume in China was relatively modest. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of consumption growth: India (+4.7% per year) and Russia (+2.6% per year).

In value terms, China ($13.9B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by India ($5.7B). It was followed by Japan.

The countries with the highest levels of cabbage per capita consumption in 2018 were Romania (57 kg per person), South Korea (46 kg per person) and Ukraine (39 kg per person).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cabbage per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by India, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for cabbage worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.4% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 80M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the amount of cabbage and other brassicas produced worldwide stood at 73M tonnes, picking up by 1.7% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.4% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being observed in certain years. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 with an increase of 6.8% against the previous year. Global cabbage production peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the near future. The general positive trend in terms of cabbage output was largely conditioned by slight growth of the harvested area and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

In value terms, cabbage production totaled $40.5B in 2018 estimated in export prices. In general, the total output indicated prominent growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +1.4% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, cabbage production decreased by -11.0% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 when production volume increased by 26% year-to-year. Global cabbage production peaked at $45.5B in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country

China (34M tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of cabbage production, accounting for 47% of total production. Moreover, cabbage production in China exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest producer, India (9.2M tonnes), fourfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Russia (3.6M tonnes), with a 5% share.

In China, cabbage production expanded at an average annual rate of +1.1% over the period from 2007-2018. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: India (+4.7% per year) and Russia (+2.9% per year).

Harvested Area 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 2.5M ha of cabbage and other brassicas were harvested worldwide; therefore, remained relatively stable against the previous year. The harvested area increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when harvested area increased by 5.6% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the harvested area dedicated to cabbage production reached its peak figure in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Yield 2007-2018

In 2018, the global average cabbage yield totaled 29 tonne per ha, approximately reflecting the previous year. Overall, the cabbage yield continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2008 with an increase of 2.2% y-o-y. The global cabbage yield peaked at 29 tonne per ha in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, yield stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports 2007-2018

In 2018, the global exports of cabbage and other brassicas totaled 2.5M tonnes, surging by 7.2% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when Exports increased by 16% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global cabbage exports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

In value terms, cabbage exports amounted to $1.7B in 2018. Over the period under review, the total exports indicated a resilient expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, cabbage exports increased by +85.8% against 2007 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when Exports increased by 18% against the previous year. Over the period under review, global cabbage exports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Exports by Country

China was the largest exporter of cabbage and other brassicas in the world, with the volume of exports reaching 990K tonnes, which was near 39% of total exports in 2018. The U.S. (220K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total exports with a 8.7% share, followed by the Netherlands (8.3%), Spain (6.2%) and Mexico (5.7%). Canada (85K tonnes), Poland (84K tonnes), Italy (72K tonnes), Germany (66K tonnes) and Macedonia (57K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

Exports from China increased at an average annual rate of +7.0% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Macedonia (+11.5%), Spain (+9.3%), Mexico (+6.1%), Canada (+5.6%) and the Netherlands (+3.1%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Macedonia emerged as the fastest growing exporter in the world, with a CAGR of +11.5% from 2007-2018. The U.S. and Italy experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Germany (-2.2%) and Poland (-3.7%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of China (+21 p.p.), Spain (+3.9 p.p.), Mexico (+2.7 p.p.), the Netherlands (+2.4 p.p.), Macedonia (+1.6 p.p.) and Canada (+1.5 p.p.) increased significantly in terms of the global exports from 2007-2018, the share of Poland (-1.7 p.p.) displayed negative dynamics. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest cabbage markets worldwide were China ($398M), the U.S. ($344M) and the Netherlands ($194M), with a combined 54% share of global exports. Spain, Mexico, Italy, Canada, Poland, Germany and Macedonia lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

Macedonia recorded the highest growth rate of exports, in terms of the main exporting countries over the last eleven years, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average cabbage export price amounted to $682 per tonne, coming down by -5.4% against the previous year. Over the last eleven-year period, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.3%. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008 when the average export price increased by 10% against the previous year. The global export price peaked at $722 per tonne in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, export prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was the U.S. ($1,567 per tonne), while Macedonia ($391 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the U.S., while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 2.3M tonnes of cabbage and other brassicas were imported worldwide; dropping by -10.3% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.4% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2015 with an increase of 24% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global cabbage imports reached their peak figure at 2.6M tonnes in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, imports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, cabbage imports totaled $1.5B in 2018. Overall, the total imports indicated a conspicuous increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.4% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, cabbage imports decreased by -12.2% against 2016 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 with an increase of 16% against the previous year. Global imports peaked at $1.7B in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

Imports by Country

In 2018, China, Hong Kong SAR (546K tonnes), distantly followed by the U.S. (225K tonnes), Canada (189K tonnes), Malaysia (176K tonnes), Russia (113K tonnes), Germany (112K tonnes) and Thailand (105K tonnes) represented the main importers of cabbage and other brassicas, together mixing up 64% of total imports. Singapore (64K tonnes), Japan (60K tonnes), the Czech Republic (53K tonnes), France (50K tonnes) and the UK (42K tonnes) occupied a minor share of total imports.

Imports into China, Hong Kong SAR increased at an average annual rate of +6.3% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Thailand (+32.5%), Malaysia (+9.8%), France (+2.5%), the U.S. (+2.2%), Canada (+2.0%) and the Czech Republic (+1.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Thailand emerged as the fastest growing importer in the world, with a CAGR of +32.5% from 2007-2018. Singapore experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Japan (-1.2%), Germany (-1.3%), Russia (-3.5%) and the UK (-5.5%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2018, the share of China, Hong Kong SAR, Malaysia, Thailand, the U.S. and Canada increased by +12%, +4.9%, +4.3%, +2.1% and +1.6% percentage points, while the UK (-1.6 p.p.) and Russia (-2.3 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Canada ($302M), China, Hong Kong SAR ($223M) and the U.S. ($167M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 47% share of global imports. These countries were followed by Germany, Malaysia, France, Thailand, Singapore, the UK, Japan, Russia and the Czech Republic, which together accounted for a further 30%.

Among the main importing countries, Thailand experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, over the last eleven-year period, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The average cabbage import price stood at $641 per tonne in 2018, approximately reflecting the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.1%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 when the average import price increased by 18% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the average import prices for cabbage and other brassicas attained their maximum at $692 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Canada ($1,597 per tonne), while Russia ($315 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Canada, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform