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Global Green Bean Market Grows Robustly to $31B

green bean

Global Green Bean Market Grows Robustly to $31B

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Green Beans – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global green bean market was estimated at $31.1B in 2019, surging by 4.7% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations throughout the analyzed period.

Taking into account the closure of the HoReCa sector worldwide due to the pandemic, a decrease in consumer incomes and possible disruptions in the work of international supply chains, global green bean consumption is expected to stagnate in 2020. Afterward, the start of gradual market growth is expected as the global economy recovers from the effects of the pandemic. The market is forecast to expand with an anticipated CAGR of +1.3% for the period from 2019 to 2030, which is projected to bring the market volume to 31M tonnes by the end of 2030.

Consumption by Country

China (21M tonnes) remains the largest green bean consuming country worldwide, comprising approx. 75% of total volume. Moreover, green bean consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest consumer, Indonesia (946K tonnes), more than tenfold. The U.S. (862K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total consumption with a 3.1% share.

From 2013 to 2019, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in China amounted to +3.6%. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of consumption growth: Indonesia (+1.2% per year) and the U.S. (-0.3% per year).

In value terms, China ($19.1B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Indonesia ($2.1B). It was followed by the U.S.

The countries with the highest levels of green bean per capita consumption in 2019 were China (14 kg per person), Turkey (8.18 kg per person) and Indonesia (3.49 kg per person).

Production

In 2019, approx. 27M tonnes of green beans were produced worldwide; rising by 2.8% compared with the previous year’s figure. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.8% over the period from 2013 to 2019. Over the period under review, global production attained the maximum volume in 2019 and is likely to continue growing in years to come. The generally positive trend in terms output was largely conditioned by a moderate increase of the harvested area and a pronounced expansion in yield figures.

Production By Country

China (21M tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of green bean production, comprising approx. 75% of total volume. Moreover, green bean production in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest producer, Indonesia (946K tonnes), more than tenfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by the U.S. (813K tonnes), with a 3% share.

In China, green bean production increased at an average annual rate of +3.6% over the period from 2013-2019. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Indonesia (+1.2% per year) and the U.S. (-0.6% per year).

Harvested Area and Yield

The global green bean harvested area was estimated at 1.8M ha in 2019, approximately mirroring the previous year’s figure. In 2019, the global average yield of green beans reached 15 tonnes per ha, growing by 2.1% compared with the year before. The yield figure increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed in certain years.

Imports

In 2019, the amount of green beans imported worldwide fell modestly to 597K tonnes, waning by -3.6% against 2018. Over the period under review, imports, however, showed a relatively flat trend pattern. Global imports peaked at 620K tonnes in 2018, and then fell slightly in the following year. In value terms, green bean imports shrank to $998M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of green bean imports in 2019 were Spain (110K tonnes), Belgium (88K tonnes), the U.S. (78K tonnes), the Netherlands (66K tonnes), France (49K tonnes), the UK (37K tonnes), Germany (25K tonnes), Canada (21K tonnes) and Italy (21K tonnes), together reaching 83% of total import. Madagascar (12K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2013 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Madagascar, while purchases for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Spain ($164M), the U.S. ($127M) and the Netherlands ($125M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2019, with a combined 42% share of global imports. These countries were followed by the UK, France, Canada, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Madagascar, which together accounted for a further 46%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2019, the average green bean import price amounted to $1,671 per tonne, rising by 1.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 an increase of 3.6% y-o-y. As a result, import price reached the peak level of $1,705 per tonne; afterward, it flattened through to 2019.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was Canada ($3,283 per tonne), while Madagascar ($241 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Canada, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

broccoli

Mexican Cauliflower And Broccoli Growers Enjoy Rising Demand in the U.S., the Fastest-Growing Importer

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Cauliflower And Broccoli – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global cauliflower and broccoli market expanded slightly to $23.1B in 2019, surging by 4.2% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +4.6% from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. Over the period under review, the global market attained the peak level in 2019 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Consumption by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cauliflower and broccoli consumption in 2019 were China (11M tonnes), India (9.2M tonnes) and the U.S. (1.2M tonnes), with a combined 78% share of global consumption. These countries were followed by Mexico, which accounted for a further 1.9%.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cauliflower and broccoli consumption, amongst the leading consuming countries, was attained by Mexico, while cauliflower and broccoli consumption for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest cauliflower and broccoli markets worldwide were China ($9B), India ($6B) and the U.S. ($1.6B), with a combined 72% share of the global market. Mexico lagged somewhat behind, comprising a further 2.6%.

The countries with the highest levels of cauliflower and broccoli per capita consumption in 2019 were China (7.45 kg per person), India (6.68 kg per person) and Mexico (3.81 kg per person).

Production

For the seventh consecutive year, the global market recorded growth in production of cauliflower and broccoli, which increased by 3.2% to 27M tonnes in 2019. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.6% over the period from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The generally positive trend in terms output was largely conditioned by perceptible growth of the harvested area and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

Production by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cauliflower and broccoli production in 2019 were China (11M tonnes), India (9.2M tonnes) and the U.S. (1.2M tonnes), with a combined 78% share of global production. Mexico and Spain lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 5.6%.

From 2013 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Mexico, while cauliflower and broccoli production for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Harvested Area and Yield

In 2019, approx. 1.5M ha of cauliflower and broccoli were harvested worldwide; growing by 2.9% in 2018. The harvested area increased at an average annual rate of +2.7% from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations in certain years. The global average cauliflower and broccoli yield was estimated at 19 tonnes per ha in 2019, stabilizing at the previous year.

Exports

In 2019, global exports of cauliflower and broccoli rose modestly to 1.3M tonnes, increasing by 2.4% on the year before. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.2% over the period from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017 when exports increased by 6.3% y-o-y. As a result, exports attained a peak of 1.4M tonnes. From 2018 to 2019, the growth of global exports remained at a lower figure. In value terms, cauliflower and broccoli exports expanded notably to $1.5B (IndexBox estimates) in 2019.

Exports by Country

Spain (385K tonnes) and Mexico (286K tonnes) represented roughly 51% of total exports of cauliflower and broccoli in 2019. They were distantly followed by the U.S. (120K tonnes), France (118K tonnes), China (87K tonnes) and Italy (72K tonnes), together creating a 30% share of total exports. The Netherlands (42K tonnes) took a minor share of total exports.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of shipments, amongst the key exporting countries, was attained by Mexico, while exports for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth. Exports from Mexico increased tangibly from 2016-2019, driven by rising demand in the U.S.

In value terms, Spain ($480M), Mexico ($360M) and the U.S. ($167M) were the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2019, with a combined 66% share of global exports.

Among the main exporting countries, Mexico recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to the value of exports, over the period under review, while shipments for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2019, the average cauliflower and broccoli export price amounted to $1,154 per tonne, with an increase of 4.8% against the previous year. Over the last six-year period, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.4%. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 an increase of 7.1% y-o-y. The global export price peaked in 2019 and is expected to retain growth in the near future.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was the Netherlands ($1,450 per tonne), while China ($825 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Mexico, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

cabbage

Portugal and Spain Emerge as the Fastest-Growing Exporters in the European Cabbage Market

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Cabbage And Other Brassicas – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The EU cabbage market rose significantly to $3.1B in 2019, increasing by 7.7% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, consumption saw a relatively flat trend pattern. The level of consumption peaked at $3.1B in 2013; afterward, it flattened through to 2019.

Consumption by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cabbage consumption in 2019 were Romania (1.1M tonnes), Poland (924K tonnes), and Germany (693K tonnes), with a combined 59% share of total consumption. These countries were followed by the UK, Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, Portugal, Greece, Austria, and the Czech Republic, which together accounted for a further 28%.

From 2013 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Spain, while cabbage consumption for the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the consumption figures.

In value terms, Poland ($510M), Germany ($438M) and Romania ($425M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2019, together accounting for 45% of the total market.

In 2019, the highest levels of cabbage per capita consumption was registered in Romania (57 kg per person), followed by Poland (24 kg per person), Portugal (10 kg per person) and Belgium (9.60 kg per person), while the world average per capita consumption of cabbage was estimated at 9 kg per person.

Production in the EU

In 2019, the production of cabbage and other brassicas decreased by -1.3% to 4.6M tonnes, falling for the second year in a row after two years of growth. In general, production showed a mild curtailment. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 with an increase of 4.2% y-o-y. As a result, production reached a peak volume of 5.3M tonnes. From 2015 to 2019, production growth remained at a somewhat lower figure. The general negative trend in terms output was largely conditioned by a mild decline of the harvested area and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

Production by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cabbage production in 2019 were Romania (1.1M tonnes), Poland (955K tonnes), and Germany (591K tonnes), with a combined 58% share of total production. Italy, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Portugal, Belgium, and Greece lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 31%.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cabbage production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Spain, while cabbage production for the other leaders experienced a decline in the production figures.

Harvested Area and Yield in the EU

The cabbage harvested area fell to 156K ha in 2019, standing approx. the year before. In general, the harvested area showed a mild descent. The level of harvested area peaked at 166K ha in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2019, it remained at a lower figure.

The average cabbage yield amounted to 29 tonnes per ha in 2019, almost unchanged from the year before. In general, the yield, however, recorded a relatively flat trend pattern.

Exports in the EU

In 2019, the amount of cabbage and other brassicas exported in the European Union expanded slightly to 656K tonnes, growing by 2.5% compared with 2018 figures. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 when exports increased by 7.1% y-o-y. As a result, exports attained the peak of 743K tonnes. From 2015 to 2019, the growth exports remained at a somewhat lower figure. In value terms, cabbage exports expanded sharply to $613M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019.

Exports by Country

The Netherlands represented the major exporting country with an export of around 210K tonnes, which reached 32% of total exports. Spain (99K tonnes) occupied a 15% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by Germany (12%), Italy (11%), Poland (8.9%), Belgium (7.3%) and Portugal (5.3%).

The Netherlands experienced a relatively flat trend pattern with regard to the volume of exports of cabbage and other brassicas. At the same time, Portugal (+9.0%), Spain (+6.2%), Belgium (+3.9%), and Italy (+3.3%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Portugal emerged as the fastest-growing cabbage exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +9.0% from 2013-2019. By contrast, Germany (-2.4%) and Poland (-13.2%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period.

In value terms, the Netherlands ($224M) remains the largest cabbage supplier in the European Union, comprising 37% of total exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Spain ($107M), with a 17% share of total exports. It was followed by Italy, with a 15% share.

Export Prices by Country

The cabbage export price in the European Union stood at $934 per tonne in 2019, rising by 9.5% against the previous year. Over the period from 2013 to 2019, it increased at an average annual rate of +3.4%. As a result, export price attained the peak level and is likely to continue growing in the immediate term.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Italy ($1,321 per tonne), while Poland ($609 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Germany, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

heirloom tomato

ALL THE WORLD TREASURES AN HEIRLOOM – TOMATO, THAT IS

Everyone Can Enjoy an Heirloom

Spring weather heralds the start of weekend farmers markets offering colorful fruits and vegetables, artisanal cheeses, and home-made baked goods. Along the east coast, tomatoes play a starring role at the local farmers markets. Green, yellow, orange, brown, grape tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, large, small – the variety seems endless.

Farmers markets are a great way to shop fresh and seasonal, but if you can’t get there, you can still find an increasingly impressive selection of tomatoes at your local grocery store. Are the tomatoes in the organic corner market the same tomatoes you get from the farmer? Unlikely. For the most part local farmers cannot sustain supply to large grocery chains where consumers are demand tomatoes year round. To meet that demand, the business of the heirloom tomato has grown global.

Pimp my Tomato

Italians made tomatoes a kitchen staple, but the tomato didn’t originate in Europe. Researchers have traced its origin to the “pimp,” a pea-sized red fruit that grows naturally in Peru and Southern Ecuador. As with so many foods we love, the Mexicans domesticated the tomato and Spanish explorers brought it home, where locals created a sweeter and tastier, but also more vulnerable, tomato.

Whether due to the preferences of grocers or their shoppers, the market overwhelmingly demands that growers focus on the few breeds of tomatoes that dominate our grocery shelves today. Producers worked to change the characteristics of tomatoes through cross-pollination in order to increase yield, to produce uniform shapes and sizes with smooth skin, and to render the tomatoes hardier for transport. Tomatoes are picked while green and artificially ripened with ethylene gas, sacrificing better taste for better looks (the flavor comes from the sugars that develop as the tomato ripens naturally).

partial-dg-pimp-tomato-graphic-for-web

Photo: The pimp fruit by David Griffen, Smithsonian.com

The New (Old) Tomato

The strict definition of heirloom tomato is a variety of tomato that has been openly pollinated for more than 50 years. Today, most experts would consider heirlooms as any non-hybrid tomato. Unlike heirlooms, many hybrid vegetables and fruits, while resilient and uniform, produce seeds that cannot reproduce. Therefore, the open pollination principle for heirlooms is key. As a result, it is the seed savers and gardeners with a flair for history that helped propel heirloom tomatoes to their elite status.

In the last decade, consumers started going back to the tomato’s heirloom roots. Top restaurants, prominent chefs, cooking magazines, the farm-to-table movement, and the proliferation of farmers markets have all put heirloom tomato flavor on display. Americans have become more tomato-curious than ever.

Regional is the New Local

Generally speaking, the entire world loves a tomato. As the most consumed vegetable in the world, we devour 130 million tons of tomatoes every year, of which 88 million are sold fresh. The remaining 42 million tons are destined for processing into tomato sauce and other products. China, the European Union, India, the United States, and Turkey are the world’s top producers.

Trade in tomatoes tends to be regional. Asia, Europe, and Africa represent 45 percent, 22 percent, and 12 percent, respectively, of global production, and much of what’s grown in one region is traded there. France, for example, is the fifth largest producer of tomatoes in Europe, exporting one quarter of its production across the European continent, primarily to Germany.

North American Tomato Trade – A Tasty NAFTA Product

About half of fresh tomatoes consumed in the United States are imported. The government applies tariffs to fresh tomatoes from countries we don’t have a free trade agreement with, and the tariffs fluctuate based on the timing of the U.S. growing season. From March 1 to July 14 (when Florida’s volume is highest and California and southeastern producing states begin to ship commercial tomatoes), it’s 3.9 cents per kilogram. Between July 15 until August 31, it goes down to 2.8 cents per kilogram (availability of locally grown tomatoes is highest). September 1 to November 14, it goes up again to 3.9 cents per kilogram. For the remainder of our winter, November 15 until March 1, it goes back down to 2.8 cents per kilogram.

Nearly all of fresh tomatoes we import into the United States come from Mexico (89 percent) and Canada (10 percent) duty-free under NAFTA. NAFTA partners are also the primary destinations for exported American tomatoes, with 77 percent of our exports going to Canada and 20 percent to Mexico. (The United States manufactures 96 percent of the tomatoes it uses in processing.)

Even though they enter the United States duty-free, tomatoes from Mexico are subject to minimum prices that vary based on the season; the price floor for winter tomatoes ranges from 31 cents to 59 cents, while summer tomato prices vary between 24.6 to 46.8 cents, depending on the tomato category. This is because Mexico has gotten very efficient at producing tomatoes year-round, which concerns some segments of American growers, particularly in Florida.

Florida growers are seeking changes to U.S. antidumping and countervailing duty proceedings in the current renegotiations of NAFTA to allow them to pursue dumping cases based on pricing in one specific season versus relying on three years of data, as is currently required. This proposal has created rifts among U.S. growers – primarily Southeast growers who support it and Western growers who fear its consequences. Mexico has also expressed strong opposition. American producers of other fruits and vegetables have also publicly opposed the proposal. They worry Mexico could use the same approach against American exporters of perishable produce.

Global, Regional, Local – It’s All Good

Our love for tomatoes will not recede any time soon. Improvements in technology are helping farmers increase their yields while maintaining or even reducing the acreage they are devoting to tomatoes. But even as trade routes for tomatoes are increasing and broadening, the allure and specialness of a locally-grown fresh tomato remains.

Tomatoes are the most popular plant for amateur home gardeners like myself. And with spring in full bloom, it’s only a matter of time before local tomatoes explode onto the scene in our neighborhood farmers market, exhibiting their versatility and flavor. The heirloom tomato has once again returned to prominence – just sprinkle a little salt on it, and take a satisfying bite. Trust me, you won’t regret it.

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Ayelet Haran

Ayelet Haran is a contributor to TradeVistas. She is a government affairs and policy executive in the life sciences industry. She holds a Master’s of Public Administration degree in International Economic Policy from Columbia University.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

tomatoes

IS A TOMATO A FRUIT OR VEGETABLE? BOTANISTS AND TRADERS DISAGREE.

Adults sometimes stop asking questions like “Is a tomato a fruit or a vegetable?” Recently, my middle school-aged daughter quizzed us over dinner on this. She knew the answer because one of her classmates had recently presented on the legal answer in debate class. I was bemused that it came down to a Supreme Court decision emanating from a customs dispute. Here’s the answer, and some trade trivia on which countries export the most tomatoes. Some of the up and comers are quite intriguing.

Nix v. Hedden

In a decision rendered on May 10, 1893, the Supreme Court handed down its answer to whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable. Under the Tariff Act of March 3, 1883, vegetables were assessed a tariff of 10 percent ad valorem. Fruits could be imported duty-free. In Nix v. Hedden, Mr. John Nix brought a case against Edward Hedden, a customs officer at the port of New York, seeking to recover duties he paid under protest on tomatoes imported from the West Indies. Nix had to prove the tomato should be considered a fruit for the purpose of determining the import duty.

In Commerce and Common Parlance

Nix’s counsel read from Webster’s Dictionary, Worcester’s Dictionary, and the Imperial Dictionary, all of which defined “fruit” as the seed of plants or that part of plants containing the seed, reinforcing the textbook categorization of the tomato as a fruit. (To the botanist or natural historian, that’s the final word. The tomato is a fruit of the vine.)

But then the court heard from longtime sellers of fruits and vegetables. The witnesses suggested, and the court agreed, that in the common language of consumers and sellers, tomatoes are considered more like other vegetables than fruits. As Justice Gray put it in his summary, “vegetables…are usually served at dinner in, with, or after the soup, fish, or meat, which constitute the principal part of the repast, and not, like fruits, generally as dessert.” To this day, tomatoes are classified as a vegetable in Chapter 7 of the U.S. Harmonized Tariff Schedule.

We Grow a Lot More Tomatoes Today

The United States is one of the world’s leading producers of tomatoes, second only to China. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, fresh and processed tomatoes generate more than $2 billion in annual U.S. farm cash receipts.

Every U.S. state produces fresh market tomatoes. About twenty produce at a commercial scale. California and Florida devote 30-40,000 acres each to fresh market tomato production – somewhere between two-thirds and three-fourths of production – followed by Virginia, Georgia, Ohio, Tennessee, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Michigan.

Trade Allows Us to Eat Tomatoes All Year

We grow a lot of tomatoes, but we also eat a lot of tomatoes. Commercial sales of fresh tomatoes in the United States are strongest in the spring when they aren’t competing with availability of local tomatoes. But we can enjoy fresh-market tomatoes all year-round because of imports. Mexico tends to fill in the seasonal supply gap for consumers in western U.S. states, and to a lesser degree in the east since Florida produces a winter crop. U.S. greenhouse and hydroponic tomatoes also make up some the difference, but generally, about one-third of the fresh tomatoes we consume are imported. Mexico also accounts for more than 70 percent of the U.S. import market for greenhouse tomatoes. Canada supplies another 27 percent.

Chapter 7 of the Tariff Schedule Again

Mexican producers are competitive with California and Florida producers in the U.S. market. Worried about imports from Mexico eating into their sales, U.S. tomato producers petitioned the U.S. Department of Commerce to investigate whether Mexican producers were selling fresh-market tomatoes in the U.S. market below fair market value, undercutting the U.S. price. The investigation was suspended when Mexico entered into a negotiated agreement in 1996 that required the majority of fresh-market tomatoes imported from Mexico to adhere to an agreed minimum price.

In subsequent and more recent revisions to that agreement, the types of tomatoes covered under the agreement expanded, the tomato season was split into two periods to cover the summer and winter seasons —each with a separate minimum price, and the floor price was increased. The period between July 1 and October 22 targets competition between California and Baja, Mexico. From October 23 to June 30, Mexican fresh-market tomatoes must meet a higher minimum price to address competition between Florida and Sinaloa, Mexico. While we don’t impose duties on imports from our free trade agreement partners, the general duty for imports from other countries also varies depending on when in the growing season the tomatoes are imported. Either way, it’s the American consumer that foots the bill of the higher prices.

Outside North America, Azerbaijan is a Fast Grower

American fresh-tomato growers typically export 6 to 7 percent of their supply. About three-fourths of those exports go to Canada. U.S. exports to Mexico are a distant second. While American, Mexican — and to a lesser extent – Canadian, growers battle for North American market share, these fifteen countries globally exported the highest values of tomatoes during 2016, accounting for over 92 percent of global trade in tomatoes.

What might surprise you the most is the last four on this list. At number 13, Azerbaijan’s exports have grown 380 percent since 2012. China’s exports grew over that period by 119 percent, Belarus by 55.5 percent, and India grew its tomato exports by 42 percent.

World Tomato Exports in 2016

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Andrea Durkin is the Editor-in-Chief of TradeVistas and Founder of Sparkplug, LLC. Ms. Durkin previously served as a U.S. Government trade negotiator and has proudly taught international trade policy and negotiations for the last fifteen years as an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University’s Master of Science in Foreign Service program.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

cassava

Global Cassava Market Is Expected to Successfully Resist the COVID Pandemic

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Cassava – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Since Cassava Constitutes a Staple Food in Tropical Countries, the Market Should Remain Stable Even Amid the Pandemic

Cassava (Manihot esculenta), also known as manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca, aipim, and agbeli, is a plant native to South America which is extensively cultivated as a staple crop in tropical and subtropical regions in Africa and Asia for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Cassava, along with rice and maize, is one of the largest sources of calories in the tropics, thereby constituting a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for millions of people.

In 2019, the global cassava market increased by 0.4% to $164.1B (IndexBox estimates), rising for the third consecutive year after two years of decline. Overall, consumption continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 7.8% y-o-y. As a result, consumption attained a peak level of $172.1B. From 2015 to 2019, the growth of the global market remained at a somewhat lower figure.

The countries with the highest volumes of cassava consumption in 2019 were Nigeria (61M tonnes), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (32M tonnes) and Thailand (32M tonnes), with a combined 42% share of global consumption. Ghana, Brazil, Indonesia, Angola, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Mozambique, China, and Malawi lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 37%.

The countries with the highest levels of cassava per capita consumption in 2019 were Ghana (646 kg per person), Cambodia (572 kg per person), and Angola (494 kg per person).

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cassava per capita consumption, amongst the leading consuming countries, was attained by Mozambique, while cassava per capita consumption for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Since cassava constitutes a well-established product in tropical countries of Africa and South America, as well as in some countries of South-Eastern Asia, the patterns of cassava consumption and the overall market demand should remain stable. Therefore, the growth of the population of tropical countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and, consequently, the demand for food products will remain the key driver of the market in the medium term.

As cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, capable of growing on poor soils, it is less sensitive to the risk of adverse weather conditions as many other crops. Accordingly, political instability in African countries, which hampers economic development, remains the main constraint on market growth.

Moreover, in early 2020, the global economy entered a period of the crisis caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to battle the spread of the virus, most countries in the world implemented quarantine measures that put on halt production and transport activity. The combination of those factors hampers economic growth heavily throughout the world and disrupts the international supply chains. The result will be a drop in GDP relative to previous years which is to cut consumer spending.

Cassava, however, features among staple food products which are rather tolerant to crisis periods in terms of consumption. Given the fact that cassava is largely consumed in countries with low incomes and where it constitutes an affordable and important diet item, it is not expected that the COVID crisis will lead to a deep decrease in cassava consumption. It is more likely that people would cut the consumption of more expensive food items on the backdrop of lower incomes but keep the main diet element. In the medium term, therefore, population growth will continue to stimulate growth in demand for cassava.

Driven by increasing demand for cassava in major consuming countries, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next decade. Market performance, however, is forecast to expand with an anticipated CAGR of +0.8% for the period from 2019 to 2030, which is projected to bring the market volume to 326M tonnes by the end of 2030.

Tropical Countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America Remain the Largest Producers of Cassava

The countries with the highest volumes of cassava production in 2019 were Nigeria (61M tonnes), Thailand (32M tonnes), and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (32M tonnes), with a combined 42% share of global production. Ghana, Brazil, Indonesia, Angola, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Mozambique, Malawi, and Cote d’Ivoire lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 37%.

From 2013 to 2019, the biggest increases were in Cote d’Ivoire, while cassava production for the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In 2019, the total area harvested in terms of cassava production worldwide rose to 26M ha, increasing by 3.3% on the previous year’s figure. Over the period under review, the harvested area, however, saw a relatively flat trend pattern. The global harvested area peaked at 26M ha in 2017; however, from 2018 to 2019, the harvested area failed to regain the momentum.

In 2019, the global average cassava yield dropped slightly to 12 tonnes per ha, leveling off at the previous year’s figure. The yield figure increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% over the period from 2013 to 2019; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 6.4% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the average cassava yield hit record highs at 12 tonnes per ha in 2018 and then dropped in the following year.

China, Thailand and Viet Nam Constitute the Largest Importers of Cassava

In 2019, the amount of cassava imported worldwide reduced to 6.6M tonnes, declining by -14.9% against the previous year. Overall, imports recorded a pronounced descent. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2015 when imports increased by 15% y-o-y. Global imports peaked at 10M tonnes in 2017; however, from 2018 to 2019, imports failed to regain momentum. In value terms, cassava imports dropped significantly to $1.3B (IndexBox estimates) in 2019.

The purchases of the three major importers of cassava, namely China, Thailand, and Viet Nam, represented more than two-thirds of total imports. South Korea (239K tonnes) took a relatively small share of total imports.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of purchases, amongst the key importing countries, was attained by Thailand, while imports for the other global leaders experienced mixed trends in the import figures.

In value terms, China ($531M), Viet Nam ($285M), and Thailand ($267M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2019, together accounting for 83% of global imports.

In terms of the main importing countries, Thailand saw the highest rates of growth with regard to the value of imports, over the period under review, while purchases for the other global leaders experienced mixed trends in the import figures.

The average cassava import price stood at $198 per tonne in 2019, which is down by -11.4% against the previous year. Overall, the import price recorded a pronounced curtailment. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when the average import price increased by 2.9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, average import prices attained the peak figure at $270 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2019, import prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was China ($219 per tonne), while Thailand ($124 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by South Korea, while the other global leaders experienced a decline in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

cucumber

Driven by Rising Demand in Russia and Ukraine, the East-European Cucumber and Gherkin Market to See Solid Growth

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Eastern Europe – Cucumbers And Gherkins – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

In 2019, the East European cucumber and gherkin market increased by 9.1% to $4.5B, rising for the third consecutive year after four years of decline. The total consumption indicated notable growth from 2007 to 2019: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.4% over the last twelve years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2019 figures, consumption increased by +26.9% against 2016 indices.

Consumption by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cucumber and gherkin consumption in 2019 were Russia (1.8M tonnes), Ukraine (1M tonnes), and Poland (587K tonnes), with a combined 82% share of total consumption. Romania, Belarus, Bulgaria, and the Czech Republic lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 14%.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cucumber and gherkin consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Bulgaria, while cucumber and gherkin consumption for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Russia ($2.1B), Ukraine ($1.2B), and Poland ($560M) were the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2019, together comprising 87% of the total market.

The countries with the highest levels of cucumber and gherkin per capita consumption in 2019 were Ukraine (24 kg per person), Belarus (19 kg per person), and Poland (15 kg per person).

Market Forecast to 2030

Driven by increasing demand for cucumber and gherkin in Eastern Europe, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next decade. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.9% for the period from 2019 to 2030, which is projected to bring the market volume to 5.1M tonnes by the end of 2030.

Production in Eastern Europe

In 2019, the production of cucumbers and gherkins increased by 2.8% to 3.8M tonnes, rising for the second year in a row after two years of decline. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% over the period from 2007 to 2019; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 16% y-o-y. Over the period under review, production reached the peak volume at 3.9M tonnes in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2019, production stood at a somewhat lower figure. The generally positive trend in terms output was largely conditioned by a slight contraction of the harvested area against a perceptible expansion in the yield figures.

Production by Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cucumber and gherkin production in 2019 were Russia (1.7M tonnes), Ukraine (1M tonnes), and Poland (541K tonnes), with a combined 84% share of total production.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cucumber and gherkin production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Russia, while cucumber and gherkin production for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Harvested Area in Eastern Europe

In 2019, the cucumber and gherkin harvested area in Eastern Europe dropped to 131K ha, shrinking by -1.5% on 2018 figures. In general, the harvested area showed a slight shrinkage. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 3.8% against the previous year. As a result, the harvested area attained the peak level of 167K ha. From 2012 to 2019, the growth of the cucumber and gherkin harvested area failed to regain the momentum.

Yield in Eastern Europe

In 2019, the average yield of cucumbers and gherkins in Eastern Europe rose modestly to 29 tonnes per ha, increasing by 4.4% compared with 2018. The yield indicated a moderate increase from 2007 to 2019: its figure increased at an average annual rate of +4.1% over the last twelve years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2019 figures, cucumber and gherkin yield increased by +61.1% against 2007 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 12% against the previous year. The level of yield peaked in 2019 and is likely to see further growth in the immediate term.

Imports in Eastern Europe

In 2019, purchases abroad of cucumbers and gherkins increased by 6.5% to 419K tonnes, rising for the third consecutive year after two years of decline. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.0% over the period from 2007 to 2019; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The volume of imports peaked in 2019 and is expected to retain growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, cucumber and gherkin imports fell modestly to $372M (IndexBox estimates) in 2019. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +4.2% from 2007 to 2019; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The level of import peaked at $375M in 2018, and then contracted slightly in the following year.

Imports by Country

In 2019, Russia (123K tonnes), distantly followed by the Czech Republic (77K tonnes), Poland (63K tonnes), Bulgaria (33K tonnes), Ukraine (26K tonnes), Hungary (21K tonnes), Romania (20K tonnes) and Slovakia (19K tonnes) were the main importers of cucumbers and gherkins, together making up 92% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of purchases, amongst the key importing countries, was attained by Ukraine, while imports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest cucumber and gherkin importing markets in Eastern Europe were Russia ($127M), the Czech Republic ($65M) and Poland ($64M), with a combined 69% share of total imports. Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ukraine lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 21%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2019, the cucumber and gherkin import price in Eastern Europe amounted to $889 per tonne, falling by -6.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the import price, however, showed a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 an increase of 29% y-o-y. The level of imports peaked at $983 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2019, import prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2019, the country with the highest price was Russia ($1,032 per tonne), while Ukraine ($425 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2019, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Russia, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

eggplant

Asia’s Eggplant Market Keeps Growing, Driven by Strong Demand in China

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Asia – Eggplants (Aubergine) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the eggplant market in Asia amounted to $68.4B in 2018, surging by 4.7% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

Consumption by Country in Asia

China (34M tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of eggplant consumption, accounting for 67% of total volume. Moreover, eggplant consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest consumer, India (13M tonnes), threefold.

From 2013 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume in China totaled +3.7%. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of consumption growth: India (-0.9% per year) and Turkey (+0.0% per year).

In value terms, China ($43.4B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by India ($20B).

In China, eggplant per capita consumption increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% over the period from 2013-2018. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of per capita consumption growth: Turkey (-1.5% per year) and India (-2.1% per year).

Production in Asia

In 2018, approx. 51M tonnes of eggplants were produced in Asia; growing by 2.9% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.0% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years. The general positive trend in terms of eggplant output was largely conditioned by a moderate increase of the harvested area and a mild expansion in yield figures.

In 2018, approx. 1.7M ha of eggplants were harvested in Asia, while the average yield stood at 29 tonne per ha, growing by 2.4% against the previous year.

Exports in Asia

In 2018, the amount of eggplants (aubergine) exported in Asia stood at 88K tonnes, growing by 26% against the previous year.

In value terms, eggplant exports amounted to $94M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated buoyant growth from 2013 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +1.4% over the last five-year period.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Turkey (23K tonnes), distantly followed by China (15K tonnes), Malaysia (9.5K tonnes), Saudi Arabia (8.1K tonnes), Uzbekistan (8K tonnes), Thailand (5.1K tonnes) and Jordan (4.5K tonnes) were the key exporters of eggplants (aubergine), together constituting 82% of total exports.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by China, while exports for the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest eggplant supplying countries in Asia were Turkey ($24M), China ($23M) and Malaysia ($5.1M), with a combined 54% share of total exports.

Export Prices by Country

The eggplant export price in Asia stood at $1,067 per tonne in 2018, picking up by 9.1% against the previous year.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was China ($1,510 per tonne), while Saudi Arabia ($352 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform