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5 Must-Have Features of Enterprise E-Commerce

e-commerce

5 Must-Have Features of Enterprise E-Commerce

E-commerce is everywhere — unless, of course, you look in the B2B space. Unfortunately, one segment lags behind all the rest when it comes to online sales: manufacturers. Just 38% of manufacturers have e-commerce websites, and only 6% of all manufacturer sales come through this particular channel. 

Part of the reason manufacturers are so slow to adopt e-commerce can be traced back to the old adage “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” The traditional ways of doing business largely haven’t posed a problem yet, so many manufacturers don’t feel a real sense of urgency to explore the increasingly relevant direct-to-consumer model. 

It also has a lot to do with technical hurdles. For many manufacturers, moving to e-commerce involves taking on yet one more system to master — that or an expensive integration with their current enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. It’s nearly impossible to get an e-commerce platform to talk to an old “closed” mainframe, so plans to upgrade often involve a two-year timeframe or longer to get everything up and running. They might also involve a million-dollar price tag. Not surprisingly, this tends to put e-commerce on the back burner pretty quickly. 

And it’s important to note, too, that most manufacturers work through distributors and dealers, making e-commerce seem like nothing more than a mere alternative to their current traditional sales channels. 

A Missed Opportunity

What many manufacturers seem to be missing, though, is that B2B customers are also B2C customers. Chances are that they’re already shopping online for their personal needs, and not having a way to buy their business products and services online can have a hefty negative impact on the customer experience. If you’re manufacturing a commodity product and your sales process lacks the convenience of shopping for that product online, your customers might begin to look elsewhere. 

Remaining passive about e-commerce is simply the wrong approach, especially with B2B buyers moving more of their purchases online all the time. As it stands, nearly half of all companies utilize online channels for 50% to 74% of all their corporate purchases. Not being online just means you’ve missed out on an opportunity — not only to secure additional sales, but also to broaden your reach to a global level

Also, remember that it’s easier than ever for competition and new players in the market to get in front of your customers via Google, Facebook, and email. Not having an e-commerce site could easily cost you market share, even if the competition’s product isn’t as good as yours.

Beyond the Basics

Knowing that it isn’t enough to conduct all business offline, know, too, that it isn’t enough to just invest in getting an e-commerce platform, leave it there, and call it good. Your site has to offer the functionalities necessary to run an online business. If your system doesn’t support multiple pricing tiers, it probably also doesn’t mimic your current sales process. Clearly, that’s not a good thing. 

Your site needs to be able to support multiple buying options, such as “requests for quotes” as opposed to a shopping cart model. It can take time to arrive at a number in a complex B2B transaction, and the last thing you want is for a customer to have to take the interaction offline just to finalize scope and nail down specifics. 

This naturally leads to my next point. Assuming your e-commerce site comes equipped with all the basics like browse, add to cart, checkout, email confirmation, etc., there are a few features to look out for at the enterprise level. Those often include the following:

System integration options

In e-commerce, a certain amount of coordination is necessary between the website itself and your back-end system that you use for inventory and accounting purposes. Without proper integration, order fulfillment can easily get problematic. Focus on maintenance, data input, and offering a seamless user experience. Most of all, understand all the system integration options of your marketplace website before going with one provider over another.

Proper data to support search

Product information is important. It’s what consumers see prior to making a purchase decision. But it can sometimes pale in comparison to the product data used behind the scenes. A number of data fields and HTML tags enable your products and website to rank in both Google and on-site search results. Make sure your platform accommodates these options. Also, inquire about the tracking capabilities of your on-site search function. It can be useful to monitor what users found — and didn’t find — during a visit.

Customer tiers

At the enterprise level, you’ll likely run across different types of customers. Being able to segment these customers into various tiers can come in handy. Based on their purchase history, for example, you might determine that one tier would respond well to a certain promotion while another’s browsing behavior could inform subsequent product recommendations. In other words, segmenting tiers allows you to personalize your messaging, pricing, and other marketing efforts to fit the needs of your customers. So look into this functionality while reviewing your e-commerce options.

Analytics integration

Whether you’re looking at an off-the-shelf platform or a custom solution, reporting is very important. At a bare minimum, make sure a standard tool like Google Analytics can be integrated with your e-commerce system. You’ll also want to inquire about the setup of advanced features like e-commerce tracking.

Merchandising

Generally, any platform you go with will provide the functionality of assigning products to categories. This can help with on-site search and make it easier for visitors to browse your product line. Beyond that, you might wish to feature certain products. The question, then, is what ability do you have in the platform to create banner ads, highlight related products on a product page, create landing pages around a spotlight topic for the month, and feature products in other ways? 

Providing a good online experience naturally makes customers feel good about doing business with you. It also increases the likelihood of driving new customers to your business without needing to invest in additional resources. 

Ultimately, you can handle more transactions with an e-commerce site in your corner. Just make sure your site provides you with all of the functionalities you need to keep your business running smoothly and your customers happy. 

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Michael Bird is the CEO of Spindustry, a digital agency focused on e-commerce, SharePoint portals, and enterprise websites. He has almost 30 years of experience in interactive development, user behavior, and business solutions. His successful agency, Spindustry, puts these strategies into practice to help businesses grow.

pesticide

Pesticide Imports into the U.S. Expand Rapidly Against Large But Stagnating Domestic Output

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘U.S. Pesticide And Other Agricultural Chemicals Market. Analysis And Forecast to 2025’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the pesticide and agricultural chemical market in the U.S. amounted to $14B in 2018, waning by -3% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Overall, pesticide and agricultural chemical consumption continues to indicate a moderate reduction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 when the market value increased by 5.6% y-o-y. Pesticide and agricultural chemical consumption peaked at $16.2B in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, consumption stood at a somewhat lower figure.

The Market For Pesticides And Other Agricultural Chemicals in the U.S. Is Buoyed By Domestic Products

In value terms, pesticide and agricultural chemical production stood at $14B in 2018. The U.S. market is largely supplied by domestic products, therefore the trend patterns of the consumption volumes and production volumes generally reflect each other.

Exports from the U.S.

In 2018, the exports of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals from the U.S. stood at 63K tonnes, jumping by 6.4% against the previous year. Over the period under review, pesticide and agricultural chemical exports, however, continue to indicate a deep downturn. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when exports increased by 17% year-to-year. In that year, pesticide and agricultural chemical exports attained their peak of 102K tonnes. From 2015 to 2018, the growth of pesticide and agricultural chemical exports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, pesticide and agricultural chemical exports totaled $1.4B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when exports increased by 36% against the previous year. In that year, pesticide and agricultural chemical exports reached their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

Brazil (11K tonnes), Canada (9.1K tonnes) and Mexico (6.6K tonnes) were the main destinations of pesticide and agricultural chemical exports from the U.S., with a combined 41% share of total exports. The UK, South Africa, Costa Rica, India, France, Belgium, Colombia, Peru and China lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 33%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by the UK (+92.8% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Brazil ($393M), Canada ($204M) and Mexico ($149M) were the largest markets for pesticide and agricultural chemical exported from the U.S. worldwide, together accounting for 52% of total exports. These countries were followed by the UK, France, China, India, Colombia, South Africa, Costa Rica, Belgium and Peru, which together accounted for a further 22%.

India recorded the highest growth rate of exports, among the main countries of destination over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into the U.S.

Pesticide and agricultural chemical imports into the U.S. totaled 62K tonnes in 2018, jumping by 15% against the previous year. Overall, the total imports indicated buoyant growth from 2013 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +11.2% over the last five years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, pesticide and agricultural chemical imports increased by +88.6% against 2014 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when imports increased by 22% y-o-y. Imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, pesticide and agricultural chemical imports totaled $433M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, pesticide and agricultural chemical imports continue to indicate a resilient expansion. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 with an increase of 81% year-to-year. Over the period under review, pesticide and agricultural chemical imports attained their maximum in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the near future.

The share of imports in terms of total consumption increased rapidly over the last two years and reached 6% in 2018. The largest increase refers to supplies from China and Mexico. Despite the tangible growth those figures, however, are still insignificant against the volume of domestic production.

Imports by Country

China (18K tonnes), Mexico (13K tonnes) and France (6.9K tonnes) were the main suppliers of pesticide and agricultural chemical imports to the U.S., together comprising 61% of total imports. These countries were followed by India, Israel, Germany, Italy, Chile and Belgium, which together accounted for a further 29%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main suppliers, was attained by Israel (+86.9% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, China ($140M) constituted the largest supplier of pesticide and agricultural chemical to the U.S., comprising 32% of total pesticide and agricultural chemical imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Mexico ($55M), with a 13% share of total imports. It was followed by France, with a 9% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of value from China amounted to +38.3%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: Mexico (+29.3% per year) and France (+10.9% per year).

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

phase one

The Phase One Deal: How We Got Here And What Is Next

President Trump announced that the United States and China had reached a partial “Phase One” trade deal in mid-October, signaling a pause in the trade tensions that have steadily grown over the past two and half years.  While the precise goals of the President’s trade action against China have always been vague, there was an unquestionable desire to change certain structural issues of the Chinese economy, particularly with the country’s intellectual property and forced technology practices.  

To put the proposed Phase One deal in its proper context, this article breaks down (1) the various stages of escalation since President Trump took office, (2) what’s known about the contents of agreement, and (3) the potential risks that could derail the deal from being signed.  

The Escalation of the Trade War

The President’s most high-profile actions against China have been his use of long-thought-defunct trade authority, Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (“Section 301”).  Section 301 grants the President the authority to impose tariffs on countries if it determines that the acts, policies, or practices of a country are unjustifiable and burden or restrict U.S. commerce.  

Following a lengthy investigation, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (“USTR”) officially determined in March 2018 that China’s policies result in harm to the U.S. economy.  Simultaneously, President Trump signed a Presidential Memorandum outlining a series of remedies that his Administration would take in response to these findings, most notably the imposition of tariffs.  

President Trump’s Section 301 tariffs currently cover most products imported from China, after having been rolled out in four different lists:  

-List 1 of the Section 301 tariffs went into effect July 2018 and imposes a 25 percent tariff on $34 billion worth of goods from China.  

-List 2 went into effect August 2018 and imposes a 25 percent tariff on $16 billion worth of goods.  

-Following China’s retaliatory tariffs on Lists 1 and 2, the United States announced List 3, which began imposing a 10 percent tariff on $200 billion of Chinese products in September 2018.  The List 3 tariffs were increased to 25 percent after negotiations between the two countries fell apart.

-List 4 could hit almost $300 billion more of Chinese products.  Part of the list (“List 4a”) went into effect on September 1 and imposes 15 percent tariffs on $112 billion of Chinese products.  The U.S. is scheduled to impose 15 percent tariffs on the remaining $160 billion of the list (“List 4b”) starting December 15.  

The Trump Administration has taken aggressive action to increase pressure on China that goes well beyond the Section 301 tariffs.  Since President Trump took office, he has targeted China’s steel and aluminum industries through global tariffs on these products. He has (at least temporarily) sanctioned major Chinese tech firms or restricted their ability to do business with the United States.  He has sanctioned Chinese individuals and entities connected to North Korea and others related to the treatment of the Uighurs in western China. He signed into law a major expansion of authority for the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”), which has immediate and future implications for Chinese investment in the United States. 

Additionally, the Administration has moved closer to Taiwan. President Trump has authorized significant military sales to Taiwan, and as President-elect, he took a call from Taiwan’s leader Tsai Ing-wen, the first such call by a U.S. President or President-elect since the 1970s. The Administration has either directly or indirectly made clear that these restrictions, sanctions, and geopolitical relationships can be used as points of leverage in the trade negotiations.  

The Phase One Deal

Many details about what is included in the Phase One deal remain unknown.  In announcing the deal, President Trump said “We have a great deal. We’re papering it now.  Over the next three or four or five weeks, hopefully, it’ll get finished. A tremendous benefit to our farmers, technology, and many other things — the banking industry, financial services.”  As the two sides “paper” the agreement into finalized text, what is known about the deal has come largely from statements made by both sides. We know that as part of the deal, the United States will not pursue plans to increase the List 1-3 tariffs from 25 percent to 30 percent. We also know China plans to make large purchases of U.S. agricultural products.  

There are reports the Phase One deal could also delay or cancel the planned List 4b tariffs. Other reports suggest that China is seeking additional eliminations or reductions of the Section 301 tariffs.  

As for the structural changes to the Chinese economy sought by the Trump Administration, it seems as though they could be mentioned in the Phase One deal, but the real work will be addressed in subsequent phases.  

What Comes Next

The stars were aligning for President Trump and President Xi to sign the Phase One deal at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (“APEC”) meetings in Santiago, Chile this week.  Unfortunately, the APEC meetings were unexpectedly cancelled due to protests in the country, highlighting that a few weeks can feel like an eternity for sensitive trade talks.  

Assuming the U.S. and China can find another location, there are still risks out there that could prevent the deal’s signing.  

One big risk to the deal is the events unfolding in Hong Kong. The Trump Administration has been notably quiet on the protests, outside of President Trump expressing his faith in President Xi to satisfactorily resolve the situation.  The strongest statement from the Administration came from Vice President Pence, who recently said, “[T]he United States will continue to urge China to show restraint, to honor its commitments, and respect the people of Hong Kong.  And to the millions in Hong Kong who have been peacefully demonstrating to protect your rights these past months, we stand with you.”

According to multiple reports, President Trump pledged to Chinese President Xi Jinping that his Administration would remain quiet on the Hong Kong protests throughout the trade talks.  However, the Administration’s hand could be forced if the protests escalate into more sustained violence or if, as is expected, Congress passes legislation in support of Hong Kong with veto-proof majorities.  

Another risk is more vocal opposition from so-called “China hawks” that are dissatisfied that Phase One doesn’t get to the heart of the problems they have with China’s economic practices.  Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) cautioned the President that he “shouldn’t be giving in to China unless we get something big in return.” Senator Marco Rubio (R-FL) doubted China’s commitment to the deal long-term, saying, “I do believe that [China] will agree to things they don’t intend to comply with.” There are reports that China hawks within the White House are also pushing the President to reject the deal, notably Director of the Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy Peter Navarro.  

A deal to end or pause the trade tensions between the United States and China would provide the private sector with more certainty as they make decisions about 2020 and beyond.  The Phase One deal looks to provide at least a pause, but geopolitical actions or domestic opposition could still derail the agreement before it is signed.   

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Rory Murphy is an Associate at Squire Patton Boggs, where his practice focuses on providing US public policy guidance, global cultural and business diplomacy advice that helps US and foreign governments and entities with doing business around the globe.

beet

European Beet-Pulp And Bagasse Market Amounted to $1.8B in 2018

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Beet-Pulp And Bagasse – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the beet-pulp and bagasse market in the European Union amounted to $1.8B in 2018, going up by 9.9% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, beet-pulp and bagasse consumption, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 when the market value increased by 20% y-o-y. The level of beet-pulp and bagasse consumption peaked at $2B in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, consumption remained at a lower figure.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of beet-pulp and bagasse consumption in 2018 were Germany (2.5M tonnes), the UK (2.2M tonnes) and France (2.1M tonnes), with a combined 44% share of total consumption. These countries were followed by Belgium, Spain, Poland, the Netherlands, Romania, Italy, Sweden, Austria and Hungary, which together accounted for a further 45%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of beet-pulp and bagasse consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Austria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest beet-pulp and bagasse markets in the European Union were the UK ($391M), Spain ($248M) and Germany ($225M), with a combined 47% share of the total market. These countries were followed by France, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Belgium and Poland, which together accounted for a further 40%.

In 2018, the highest levels of beet-pulp and bagasse per capita consumption was registered in Belgium (131 kg per person), followed by the Netherlands (49 kg per person), Austria (42 kg per person) and Sweden (41 kg per person), while the world average per capita consumption of beet-pulp and bagasse was estimated at 31 kg per person.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of the beet-pulp and bagasse per capita consumption in Belgium stood at +3.0%. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of per capita consumption growth: the Netherlands (-2.6% per year) and Austria (+5.5% per year).

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 15M tonnes of beet-pulp and bagasse were produced in the European Union; surging by 2% against the previous year. In general, beet-pulp and bagasse production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 when production volume increased by 16% y-o-y. The volume of beet-pulp and bagasse production peaked at 16M tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, beet-pulp and bagasse production amounted to $1.8B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, beet-pulp and bagasse production, however, continues to indicate a slight reduction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 with an increase of 24% year-to-year. In that year, beet-pulp and bagasse production reached its peak level of $2.5B. From 2014 to 2018, beet-pulp and bagasse production growth remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of beet-pulp and bagasse production in 2018 were France (2.9M tonnes), Germany (2.5M tonnes) and the UK (1.9M tonnes), with a combined 50% share of total production. These countries were followed by Spain, Belgium, Poland, the Netherlands, Romania, Austria, Sweden, Hungary and Bulgaria, which together accounted for a further 42%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of beet-pulp and bagasse production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Sweden, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

The exports totaled 1.7M tonnes in 2018, picking up by 14% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 when exports increased by 18% against the previous year. The volume of exports peaked at 1.9M tonnes in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, beet-pulp and bagasse exports amounted to $309M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated prominent growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beet-pulp and bagasse exports increased by +40.7% against 2016 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 with an increase of 30% y-o-y. The level of exports peaked at $321M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

France represented the major exporting country with an export of around 767K tonnes, which accounted for 45% of total exports. Slovenia (159K tonnes) held a 9.3% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by the Netherlands (8.4%), Belgium (7.6%), the Czech Republic (6.5%), Austria (6.3%) and Germany (6%).

Exports from France increased at an average annual rate of +5.4% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Austria (+10.7%), the Czech Republic (+9.6%) and Slovenia (+4.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Austria emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +10.7% from 2007-2018. Belgium and the Netherlands experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Germany (-5.0%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2018, the share of France, Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovenia increased by +20%, +4.3%, +4.1% and +3.4% percentage points, while Germany (-4.6 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, France ($153M) remains the largest beet-pulp and bagasse supplier in the European Union, comprising 50% of total beet-pulp and bagasse exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Belgium ($28M), with a 9% share of total exports. It was followed by the Netherlands, with a 8.8% share.

In France, beet-pulp and bagasse exports increased at an average annual rate of +8.1% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Belgium (+7.7% per year) and the Netherlands (+1.2% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The beet-pulp and bagasse export price in the European Union stood at $182 per tonne in 2018, going up by 15% against the previous year. Over the last eleven years, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.8%. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when the export price increased by 32% y-o-y. The level of export price peaked at $192 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Belgium ($216 per tonne), while Germany ($120 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 2.9M tonnes of beet-pulp and bagasse were imported in the European Union; surging by 5.1% against the previous year. The total imports indicated a buoyant expansion from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.0% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beet-pulp and bagasse imports increased by +18.8% against 2012 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2012 with an increase of 31% year-to-year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the near future.

In value terms, beet-pulp and bagasse imports totaled $509M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total imports indicated buoyant growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +5.0% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beet-pulp and bagasse imports increased by +28.3% against 2016 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 when imports increased by 36% y-o-y. Over the period under review, beet-pulp and bagasse imports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

The imports of the eight major importers of beet-pulp and bagasse, namely Belgium, Italy, the UK, Latvia, the Netherlands, Ireland, Spain and Denmark, represented more than two-thirds of total import.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by the UK, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest beet-pulp and bagasse importing markets in the European Union were Belgium ($85M), Italy ($75M) and the UK ($63M), together comprising 44% of total imports.

The UK recorded the highest growth rate of imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The beet-pulp and bagasse import price in the European Union stood at $178 per tonne in 2018, surging by 11% against the previous year. In general, the beet-pulp and bagasse import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 when the import price increased by 41% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the import prices for beet-pulp and bagasse attained their peak figure at $207 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was the UK ($213 per tonne), while Latvia ($116 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

wool

Spain’s Wool Production Bounced Back to a Five-Year High of 4.7K Tonnes

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Spain – Wool – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the wool market in Spain amounted to $6.9M in 2018, waning by -17.4% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, wool consumption, however, continues to indicate a remarkable expansion. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2012 with an increase of 101% y-o-y. Wool consumption peaked at $8.4M in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Production in Spain

In 2018, the wool production in Spain stood at 4.7K tonnes, rising by 34% against the previous year. Overall, wool production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 when production volume increased by 34% y-o-y. Wool production peaked at 6.1K tonnes in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

In value terms, wool production totaled $7M in 2018 estimated in export prices. In general, wool production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2012 when production volume increased by 173% against the previous year. In that year, wool production reached its peak level of $8.8M. From 2013 to 2018, wool production growth remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports from Spain

Wool exports from Spain stood at 1.7K tonnes in 2018, rising by 52% against the previous year. Overall, wool exports, however, continue to indicate a drastic downturn. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2018 when exports increased by 52% against the previous year. Over the period under review, wool exports attained their peak figure at 3.9K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, wool exports totaled $3.9M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, wool exports, however, continue to indicate an abrupt decrease. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 69% y-o-y. Over the period under review, wool exports reached their maximum at $11M in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

Italy (371 tonnes), Denmark (363 tonnes) and Portugal (348 tonnes) were the main destinations of wool exports from Spain, together comprising 62% of total exports. These countries were followed by Belgium, the UK, France, Lithuania, Germany, Taiwan, Chinese, India and China, which together accounted for a further 32%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by Taiwan, Chinese, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Denmark ($1.4M), Italy ($874K) and Portugal ($322K) were the largest markets for wool exported from Spain worldwide, together comprising 66% of total exports.

Among the main countries of destination, Denmark recorded the highest growth rate of exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The average wool export price stood at $2,228 per tonne in 2018, lowering by -14.4% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the wool export price continues to indicate a mild reduction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 an increase of 24% year-to-year. In that year, the average export prices for wool reached their peak level of $3,048 per tonne. From 2012 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average export prices for wool remained at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices for the major foreign markets. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Denmark ($3,841 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Portugal ($924 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to India, while the prices for the other major destinations experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into Spain

Wool imports into Spain amounted to 1.9K tonnes in 2018, dropping by -29.7% against the previous year. In general, wool imports continue to indicate a mild slump. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 with an increase of 74% against the previous year. Imports peaked at 2.7K tonnes in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

In value terms, wool imports stood at $4.7M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, wool imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when imports increased by 49% against the previous year. In that year, wool imports attained their peak of $5.3M, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Portugal (824 tonnes) constituted the largest supplier of wool to Spain, with a 44% share of total imports. Moreover, wool imports from Portugal exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest supplier, the UK (284 tonnes), threefold. Morocco (270 tonnes) ranked third in terms of total imports with a 14% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume from Portugal stood at -3.3%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: the UK (+35.5% per year) and Morocco (+42.3% per year).

In value terms, Portugal ($1.4M), the UK ($746K) and New Zealand ($728K) were the largest wool suppliers to Spain, with a combined 62% share of total imports. These countries were followed by Morocco, Australia, Germany and France, which together accounted for a further 28%.

Morocco recorded the highest growth rate of imports, among the main suppliers over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The average wool import price stood at $2,525 per tonne in 2018, picking up by 26% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.4%. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2018 an increase of 26% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for wool attained their maximum at $3,124 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, import prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major supplying countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Australia ($7,649 per tonne), while the price for Portugal ($1,755 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Germany, while the prices for the other major suppliers experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

EU Citrus Fruit Market Reached to $12B in 2018

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Citrus Fruit – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the citrus fruit market in the European Union amounted to $12B in 2018, increasing by 2.8% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years.

The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008, with an increase of 22% against the previous year. In that year, the citrus fruit market attained its peak level of $12.7B. From 2009 to 2018, the growth of the citrus fruit market remained at a lower figure.

Production in the EU

The citrus fruit production stood at 11M tonnes in 2018, stabilizing at the previous year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 4.8M tonnes of citrus fruits were exported in the European Union; coming down by -9.1% against the previous year. Overall, citrus fruit exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In value terms, citrus fruit exports stood at $5.1B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

Spain prevails in citrus fruit exports structure, recording 3.2M tonnes, which was approx. 66% of total exports in 2018. It was distantly followed by Greece (357K tonnes), the Netherlands (296K tonnes) and Italy (252K tonnes), together generating 19% share of total exports. Germany (215K tonnes), Portugal (174K tonnes) and France (105K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

Exports from Spain decreased at an average annual rate of -1.3% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Portugal (+16.9%), Germany (+7.3%), Greece (+3.4%) and France (+2.9%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Portugal emerged as the fastest growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +16.9% from 2007-2018. The Netherlands and Italy experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. Spain (10%) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the global exports, while Greece, Germany and Portugal saw its share reduced by -2.3%, -2.4% and -3% from 2007 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Spain ($3.5B) remains the largest citrus fruit supplier in the European Union, comprising 69% of total citrus fruit exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the Netherlands ($354M), with a 7% share of total exports. It was followed by Germany, with a 5.3% share.

Export Prices by Country

The citrus fruit export price in the European Union stood at $1,046 per tonne in 2018, picking up by 9% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.3%. There were significant differences in the average export prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest export price was Germany ($1,245 per tonne), while Greece ($557 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of export prices was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

The imports stood at 6.7M tonnes in 2018, dropping by -6% against the previous year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In value terms, citrus fruit imports totaled $6.3B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of citrus fruit imports in 2018 were France (1.2M tonnes), Germany (1.1M tonnes) and the Netherlands (1.1M tonnes), together reaching 51% of total import. The UK (602K tonnes) took the next position in the ranking, followed by Italy (369K tonnes), Poland (357K tonnes) and Spain (349K tonnes). All these countries together took near 25% share of total imports. Romania (269K tonnes), Portugal (183K tonnes), Sweden (160K tonnes), the Czech Republic (145K tonnes) and Belgium (141K tonnes) occupied a minor share of total imports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($1.2B), Germany ($1.1B) and the Netherlands ($979M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 52% share of total imports. These countries were followed by the UK, Italy, Poland, Spain, Romania, Sweden, Belgium, Portugal and the Czech Republic, which together accounted for a further 37%.

Import Prices by Country

The citrus fruit import price in the European Union stood at $933 per tonne in 2018, flattening at the previous year. In general, the citrus fruit import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. There were significant differences in the average import prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest import price was Belgium ($1,135 per tonne), while Romania ($745 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of import prices was attained by Sweden, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

lemon

Global Market for Concentrated Lemon and Lime Juice Reached $591M

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Concentrated Lemon And Other Citrus Fruit Juice – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the market for concentrated lemon and lime juice worldwide amounted to $591M in 2018. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, the total market indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.5% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period.

Based on 2018 figures, consumption of concentrated lemon and lime juice increased by +29.5% against 2012 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008 with an increase of 26% y-o-y. The global consumption of concentrated lemon and lime peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Consumption By Country

The U.S. (49K tonnes) remains the largest concentrated lemon and lime juice consuming country worldwide, accounting for 19% of total consumption. Moreover, consumption of concentrated lemon and lime juice in the U.S. exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest consumer, Argentina (19K tonnes), threefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Germany (18K tonnes), with a 7% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume in the U.S. stood at +18.3%. The remaining consuming countries recorded the following average annual rates of consumption growth: Argentina (+9.8% per year) and Germany (+0.1% per year).

In value terms, the U.S. ($110M), Germany ($59M) and Argentina ($58M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 38% share of the global market. These countries were followed by Japan, Canada, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Brazil, the UK and Senegal, which together accounted for a further 39%.

The countries with the highest levels of concentrated lemon and lime juice per capita consumption in 2018 were Senegal (551 kg per 1000 persons), the Netherlands (531 kg per 1000 persons) and Canada (470 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of per capita consumption of concentrated lemon and lime juice, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Spain, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 259K tonnes of concentrated lemon and lime juice were produced worldwide; rising by 12% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.1% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 12% year-to-year. In that year, global production of concentrated lemon and lime juice attained its peak volume and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, production of concentrated lemon and lime juice stood at $593M in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, the total output indicated a buoyant increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +3.1% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, production of concentrated lemon and lime juice increased by +26.8% against 2013 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008 when production volume increased by 18% y-o-y. The global production of concentrated lemon and lime juice peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Production By Country

Argentina (86K tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of production of concentrated lemon and lime fruit juice, accounting for 33% of total production. Moreover, production of concentrated lemon and lime juice in Argentina exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest producer, Brazil (20K tonnes), fourfold. Spain (20K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total production with a 7.8% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in Argentina totaled +5.0%. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: Brazil (+0.7% per year) and Spain (+0.8% per year).

Exports 2007-2018

In 2018, the global exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice totaled 271K tonnes, rising by 5.7% against the previous year. In general, the total exports indicated buoyant growth from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.1% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice increased by +73.1% against 2007 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 12% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice attained their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice stood at $660M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice continue to indicate a prominent increase. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008 with an increase of 51% against the previous year. Over the period under review, global exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice attained their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Argentina (68K tonnes) represented the main exporter of concentrated lemon and lime juice, creating 25% of total exports. It was distantly followed by the Netherlands (19K tonnes), Mexico (18K tonnes), the U.S. (17K tonnes), Spain (16K tonnes), Italy (16K tonnes), Peru (16K tonnes), South Africa (13K tonnes) and Brazil (13K tonnes), together making up a 47% share of total exports. The United Arab Emirates (11K tonnes), Saudi Arabia (11K tonnes) and Thailand (9K tonnes) occupied a little share of total exports.

Exports from Argentina increased at an average annual rate of +3.9% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Saudi Arabia (+63.9%), Thailand (+39.3%), Peru (+30.3%), the U.S. (+11.2%), South Africa (+10.0%), the United Arab Emirates (+8.2%), Mexico (+7.6%), the Netherlands (+7.0%) and Italy (+2.3%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Saudi Arabia emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the world, with a CAGR of +63.9% from 2007-2018. Brazil experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Spain (-2.3%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of Argentina (+8.6 p.p.), Peru (+5.5 p.p.), the U.S. (+4.3 p.p.), Saudi Arabia (+4 p.p.), Mexico (+3.8 p.p.), the Netherlands (+3.6 p.p.), Thailand (+3.2 p.p.), South Africa (+3.1 p.p.) and the United Arab Emirates (+2.3 p.p.) increased significantly in terms of the global exports from 2007-2018, the share of Spain (-1.7 p.p.) displayed negative dynamics. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Argentina ($226M) remains the largest concentrated lemon and lime juice supplier worldwide, comprising 34% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the Netherlands ($63M), with a 9.5% share of global exports. It was followed by Italy, with a 7.9% share.

In Argentina, exports of concentrated lemon and lime juice expanded at an average annual rate of +15.4% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: the Netherlands (+14.2% per year) and Italy (+7.9% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The average export price for concentrated lemon and lime juice stood at $2,439 per tonne in 2018, approximately mirroring the previous year. Over the period under review, the export price indicated prominent growth from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +5.5% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, export price for concentrated lemon and olime juice decreased by -12.9% against 2015 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 35% year-to-year. The global export price peaked at $2,799 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was the Netherlands ($3,352 per tonne), while Peru ($675 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Argentina, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

Global imports totaled 267K tonnes in 2018, going up by 3.7% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the total imports indicated remarkable growth from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.4% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, imports of concentrated lemon and lime juice increased by +52.6% against 2012 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 with an increase of 23% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global imports of concentrated lemon and lime juice reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, imports of concentrated lemon and lime juice amounted to $640M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, the total imports indicated a remarkable expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +4.4% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, imports of concentrated lemon and lime juice increased by +40.5% against 2013 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2008 with an increase of 49% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global imports of concentrated lemon and lime juice reached their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

In 2018, the U.S. (66K tonnes), distantly followed by the Netherlands (28K tonnes), Germany (22K tonnes), Canada (17K tonnes) and Japan (16K tonnes) represented the key importers of concentrated lemon and lime juice, together achieving 56% of total imports. France (10,503 tonnes), Senegal (9,018 tonnes), Spain (8,443 tonnes), Italy (7,446 tonnes), the UK (7,433 tonnes), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (5,978 tonnes) and Saudi Arabia (4,703 tonnes) occupied a minor share of total imports.

Imports into the U.S. increased at an average annual rate of +15.9% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (+18.6%), Senegal (+14.8%), Saudi Arabia (+13.7%), Canada (+12.7%), Spain (+9.6%), Italy (+7.0%) and the Netherlands (+3.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Lao People’s Democratic Republic emerged as the fastest-growing importer in the world, with a CAGR of +18.6% from 2007-2018. The UK, Germany and Japan experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, France (-3.7%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of the U.S. (+20 p.p.), Canada (+4.8 p.p.), the Netherlands (+3.5 p.p.), Senegal (+2.6 p.p.), Spain (+2 p.p.) and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (+1.9 p.p.) increased significantly in terms of the global imports from 2007-2018, the share of France (-2 p.p.) displayed negative dynamics. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest concentrated lemon and lime juice importing markets worldwide were the U.S. ($145M), Germany ($74M) and the Netherlands ($71M), together accounting for 45% of global imports.

The U.S. experienced the highest growth rate of imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The average import price for concentrated lemon and lime juice stood at $2,396 per tonne in 2018, jumping by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the import price indicated a prominent increase from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +4.4% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, import price for concentrated lemon and lime juice decreased by -12.8% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 an increase of 24% year-to-year. The global import price peaked at $2,771 per tonne in 2011; however, from 2012 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Japan ($3,548 per tonne), while Senegal ($300 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

packaging

China’s Packaging Materials Market Is Slowing Down Due to Weak Demand

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘China – Packaging Materials – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the packaging materials market in China amounted to $69B in 2018, going down by -6.1% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, the total market indicated buoyant growth from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.5% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period.

Based on 2018 figures, packaging materials consumption increased by +17.4% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 when the market value increased by 25% year-to-year. In that year, the packaging materials market reached its peak level of $73.5B, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Production in China

Packaging materials production in China totaled 63M tonnes in 2018, waning by -8.3% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% over the period from 2008 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2009 with an increase of 9.3% against the previous year. Over the period under review, packaging materials production attained its maximum volume at 69M tonnes in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

In value terms, packaging materials production stood at $73.1B in 2018 estimated in export prices. In general, the total output indicated a buoyant increase from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, packaging materials production increased by +24.2% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when production volume increased by 32% year-to-year. In that year, packaging materials production reached its peak level of $77.5B, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Exports from China

In 2018, the exports of packaging materials from China stood at 2.9M tonnes, going up by 4.7% against the previous year. Overall, packaging materials exports continue to indicate a buoyant expansion. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 33% year-to-year. Over the period under review, packaging materials exports attained their maximum at 2.9M tonnes in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, packaging materials exports stood at $3.1B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, packaging materials exports continue to indicate a buoyant increase. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 36% y-o-y. Exports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

Viet Nam (183K tonnes), Iran (136K tonnes) and Bangladesh (127K tonnes) were the main destinations of packaging materials exports from China, together accounting for 16% of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by Bangladesh, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Viet Nam ($223M), the U.S. ($158M) and Iran ($118M) appeared to be the largest markets for packaging materials exported from China worldwide, together accounting for 16% of total exports.

Among the main countries of destination, Viet Nam experienced the highest growth rate of exports, over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average packaging materials export price amounted to $1,073 per tonne, surging by 4.2% against the previous year. Over the period from 2008 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.9%. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when the average export price increased by 11% against the previous year. The export price peaked at $1,145 per tonne in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, export prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices for the major foreign markets. In 2018, the country with the highest price was India ($1,471 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Bangladesh ($788 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to India, while the prices for the other major destinations experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into China

Packaging materials imports into China totaled 2.3M tonnes in 2018, picking up by 3.4% against the previous year. Over the period under review, packaging materials imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when imports increased by 13% against the previous year. Over the period under review, packaging materials imports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, packaging materials imports amounted to $2.2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.6% from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when imports increased by 15% y-o-y. In that year, packaging materials imports attained their peak of $2.3B. From 2012 to 2018, the growth of packaging materials imports remained at a lower figure.

Imports by Country

The U.S. (422K tonnes), Sweden (309K tonnes) and Taiwan, Chinese (168K tonnes) were the main suppliers of packaging materials imports to China, together comprising 39% of total imports. These countries were followed by Indonesia, Russia, Australia, Japan, Brazil, Finland, Canada, South Korea and New Zealand, which together accounted for a further 37%.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main suppliers, was attained by Canada, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest packaging materials suppliers to China were the U.S. ($390M), Sweden ($293M) and Japan ($146M), together accounting for 37% of total imports. Taiwan, Chinese, Russia, Australia, Indonesia, Brazil, Finland, South Korea, Canada and New Zealand lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 33%.

In terms of the main suppliers, Canada experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The average packaging materials import price stood at $982 per tonne in 2018, remaining relatively unchanged against the previous year. Over the last decade, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.1%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 an increase of 15% year-to-year. The import price peaked at $1,120 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, import prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major supplying countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Japan ($1,286 per tonne), while the price for Indonesia ($630 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Australia, while the prices for the other major suppliers experieznced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

gauze

Slovakia, China and Algeria are the Main Suppliers of Gauze to the UK

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘United Kingdom – Gauze (Excluding Medical Gauze) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the gauze market in the UK amounted to $2.9M in 2018, increasing by 5.5% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, gauze consumption continues to indicate a buoyant increase.

Production in the UK

In 2018, the gauze production in the UK stood at 316K square meters. Overall, gauze production continues to indicate a noticeable downturn. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when production volume increased by 45% against the previous year. Over the period under review, gauze production reached its peak figure volume at 596K square meters in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

In value terms, gauze production stood at $2.5M in 2018. In general, the total output indicated a remarkable increase from 2008 to 2018: its value decreased at an average annual rate of -3.7% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, gauze production increased by +138.4% against 2009 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 44% against the previous year. Gauze production peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports from the UK

In 2018, the gauze exports from the UK totaled 30K square meters, remaining relatively unchanged against the previous year. In general, gauze exports continue to indicate a mild contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 when exports increased by 372% against the previous year. Over the period under review, gauze exports attained their peak figure at 170K square meters in 2010; however, from 2011 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, gauze exports amounted to $660K (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, gauze exports continue to indicate a drastic downturn. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2012 when exports increased by 79% against the previous year. Exports peaked at $2.5M in 2010; however, from 2011 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

Exports by Country

Slovakia (11K square meters), the U.S. (10K square meters) and Sweden (1.8K square meters) were the main destinations of gauze exports from the UK, with a combined 76% share of total exports. These countries were followed by Ireland, Nigeria, Canada and the United Arab Emirates, which together accounted for a further 11%.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by Nigeria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest markets for gauze exported from the UK were Slovakia ($216K), the U.S. ($206K) and Ireland ($13K), together comprising 66% of total exports.

The U.S. recorded the highest growth rate of exports, among the main countries of destination over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The average gauze export price stood at $22 per square meter in 2018, jumping by 66% against the previous year. Overall, the gauze export price, however, continues to indicate a noticeable deduction. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 when the average export price increased by 192% year-to-year. In that year, the average export prices for gauze (excluding medical gauze) reached their peak level of $46 per square meter. From 2015 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average export prices for gauze (excluding medical gauze) remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Slovakia ($20 per square meter), while the average price for exports to Nigeria ($1.5 per square meter) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to Canada, while the prices for the other major destinations experienced mixed trend patterns.

Imports into the UK

In 2018, the imports of gauze (excluding medical gauze) into the UK totaled 130K square meters, going down by -2.6% against the previous year. In general, gauze imports, however, continue to indicate a prominent expansion. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 with an increase of 814% against the previous year. Imports peaked at 133K square meters in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

In value terms, gauze imports totaled $1.3M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, the total imports indicated a pronounced increase from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +9.9% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, gauze imports increased by +122.7% against 2012 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 when imports increased by 39% y-o-y. Imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

Slovakia (55K square meters), China (36K square meters) and Algeria (25K square meters) were the main suppliers of gauze imports to the UK, with a combined 89% share of total imports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main suppliers, was attained by China, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Slovakia ($1M) constituted the largest supplier of gauze to the UK, comprising 75% of total gauze imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by China ($142K), with a 11% share of total imports. It was followed by Algeria, with a 4.2% share.

From 2008 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value from Slovakia was relatively modest. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: China (+36.5% per year) and Algeria (+37.7% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average gauze import price amounted to $10 per square meter, picking up by 7.2% against the previous year. In general, the gauze import price, however, continues to indicate an abrupt reduction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 an increase of 421% year-to-year. In that year, the average import prices for gauze (excluding medical gauze) attained their peak level of $101 per square meter. From 2010 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average import prices for gauze (excluding medical gauze) failed to regain its momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Slovakia ($18 per square meter), while the price for Algeria ($2.3 per square meter) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Algeria, while the prices for the other major suppliers experienced a decline.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

plantain

Africa’s Plantain Market to Reach Over 30M Tonnes by 2025

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Africa – Plantains – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Consumption By Country in Africa

The countries with the highest volumes of plantain consumption in 2018 were Democratic Republic of the Congo (5.5M tonnes), Cameroon (4.8M tonnes) and Ghana (4.1M tonnes), together comprising 59% of total consumption.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of plantain consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Democratic Republic of the Congo, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

The countries with the highest levels of plantain per capita consumption in 2018 were Cameroon (197 kg per person), Ghana (141 kg per person) and Uganda (68 kg per person).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of plantain per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Democratic Republic of the Congo, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the per capita consumption figures.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for plantain in Africa, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +2.9% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 30M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in Africa

The plantain production stood at 25M tonnes in 2018, picking up by 3.6% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.0% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 when production volume increased by 12% against the previous year. Over the period under review, plantain production attained its peak figure volume in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future. The general positive trend in terms of plantain output was largely conditioned by a conspicuous increase of the harvested area and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

Production By Country in Africa

The countries with the highest volumes of plantain production in 2018 were Democratic Republic of the Congo (5.5M tonnes), Cameroon (4.8M tonnes) and Ghana (4.1M tonnes), together comprising 59% of total production.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of plantain production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Democratic Republic of the Congo, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Harvested Area in Africa

The plantain harvested area amounted to 4.2M ha in 2018, growing by 3.7% against the previous year. The harvested area increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 14% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the harvested area dedicated to plantain production reached its peak figure at 4.3M ha in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, harvested area stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Yield in Africa

The average plantain yield amounted to 5.8 tonne per ha in 2018, approximately equating the previous year. In general, the plantain yield, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 when yield increased by 1.6% y-o-y. The level of plantain yield peaked at 5.8 tonne per ha in 2009; however, from 2010 to 2018, yield stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports in Africa

The exports totaled 99K tonnes in 2018, dropping by -5.8% against the previous year. Overall, plantain exports continue to indicate an abrupt decrease. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 when exports increased by 27% year-to-year. The volume of exports peaked at 181K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, plantain exports amounted to $45M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, plantain exports continue to indicate a drastic descent. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2014 when exports increased by 13% year-to-year. The level of exports peaked at $85M in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Mozambique (38K tonnes) and Cote d’Ivoire (26K tonnes) were the main exporters of plantains in Africa, together making up 65% of total exports. It was distantly followed by Sudan (14K tonnes) and South Africa (12K tonnes), together committing a 27% share of total exports. The following exporters – Cameroon (3.2K tonnes) and Ghana (2.9K tonnes) – each accounted for a 6.1% share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Cote d’Ivoire, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest plantain markets in Africa were Cote d’Ivoire ($12M), Sudan ($11M) and Mozambique ($11M), together accounting for 76% of total exports.

Sudan experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, among the main exporting countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the exports figures.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the plantain export price in Africa amounted to $454 per tonne, growing by 4.8% against the previous year. Overall, the plantain export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2015 an increase of 11% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the export prices for plantains attained their maximum at $485 per tonne in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, export prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Cameroon ($850 per tonne), while Ghana ($203 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Cameroon, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the export price figures.

Imports in Africa

The imports totaled 179K tonnes in 2018, picking up by 11% against the previous year. The total imports indicated a prominent expansion from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.5% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, plantain imports increased by +20.7% against 2014 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 19% year-to-year. Over the period under review, plantain imports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, plantain imports totaled $51M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 with an increase of 11% y-o-y. Over the period under review, plantain imports reached their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

South Africa was the key importing country with an import of about 119K tonnes, which resulted at 66% of total imports. Senegal (29K tonnes) held the second position in the ranking, followed by Mali (17K tonnes). All these countries together took approx. 26% share of total imports. Botswana (5.1K tonnes) and Algeria (3.1K tonnes) occupied a little share of total imports.

Imports into South Africa increased at an average annual rate of +11.5% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Senegal (+19.5%) and Mali (+6.1%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Senegal emerged as the fastest-growing importer in Africa, with a CAGR of +19.5% from 2007-2018. By contrast, Botswana (-2.5%) and Algeria (-16.8%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2018, the share of South Africa, Senegal and Mali increased by +46%, +14% and +4.6% percentage points, while Algeria (-11.4 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, South Africa ($27M) constitutes the largest market for imported plantains in Africa, comprising 53% of total plantain imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Senegal ($13M), with a 25% share of total imports. It was followed by Botswana, with a 6.4% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value in South Africa totaled +9.2%. The remaining importing countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: Senegal (+22.9% per year) and Botswana (-3.2% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the plantain import price in Africa amounted to $284 per tonne, coming down by -1.9% against the previous year. Overall, the plantain import price continues to indicate a perceptible setback. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2015 when the import price increased by 12% year-to-year. The level of import price peaked at $421 per tonne in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Algeria ($1,017 per tonne), while Mali ($64 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Algeria, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform