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U.S. Imports of Pumpkins From Mexico Account for One-Third of Global Trade

pumpkin

U.S. Imports of Pumpkins From Mexico Account for One-Third of Global Trade

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Pumpkin (Squash And Gourds) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

In 2018, global pumpkin trade is estimated at 1.5M tonnes. The U.S. remains the world’s largest and fasted-growing importer (508K tonnes in 2018), which accounts for 34% of global imports, while Mexico holds a 86% share in U.S. pumpkin imports.

The global pumpkin market revenue amounted to $22.6B in 2018, leveling off at the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 with an increase of 6.9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the global pumpkin market reached its peak figure level in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of pumpkin consumption in 2018 were China (7.9M tonnes), India (5.9M tonnes) and Russia (1.3M tonnes), together accounting for 53% of global consumption. These countries were followed by the U.S., Iran, Ukraine, Italy, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Egypt, which together accounted for a further 18%.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pumpkin consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Indonesia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, India ($6.1B), China ($4.7B) and the U.S. ($1.1B) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 53% share of the global market. Russia, Italy, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Egypt, Iran and Indonesia lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 14%.

The countries with the highest levels of pumpkin per capita consumption in 2018 were Ukraine (15,778 kg per 1000 persons), Iran (13,096 kg per 1000 persons) and Russia (8,784 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pumpkin per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Indonesia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for pumpkin worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +2.0% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 32M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 28M tonnes of pumpkin (squash and gourds) were produced worldwide; picking up by 2.8% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.6% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 2.8% y-o-y. In that year, global pumpkin production attained its peak volume and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term. The general positive trend in terms of pumpkin output was largely conditioned by a measured increase of the harvested area and a relatively flat trend pattern in yield figures.

In value terms, pumpkin production amounted to $22.3B in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +3.4% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 6.9% y-o-y. In that year, global pumpkin production reached its peak level of $22.5B, leveling off in the following year.

Production By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of pumpkin production in 2018 were China (7.9M tonnes), India (5.9M tonnes) and Russia (1.2M tonnes), with a combined 53% share of global production. These countries were followed by Iran, the U.S., Spain, Ukraine, Mexico, Italy, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Turkey, which together accounted for a further 21%.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of pumpkin production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Indonesia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Harvested Area 2007-2018

In 2018, the global harvested area of pumpkin (squash and gourds) amounted to 2B ha, increasing by 2.1% against the previous year. The harvested area increased at an average annual rate of +2.0% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when harvested area increased by 2.1% year-to-year. In that year, the global pumpkin harvested area attained its peak level and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Yield 2007-2018

Global average pumpkin yield amounted to 14 kg per ha in 2018, flattening at the previous year. In general, the pumpkin yield continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when yield increased by 0.7% against the previous year. In that year, the average pumpkin yield attained its peak level and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports totaled 1.6M tonnes in 2018, increasing by 5.7% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.9% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2016 with an increase of 14% year-to-year. The global exports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, pumpkin exports stood at $1.5B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +3.3% over the period from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 14% against the previous year. The global exports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Mexico (508K tonnes) and Spain (352K tonnes) represented the major exporters of pumpkin (squash and gourds)around the world, together achieving 55% of total exports. It was distantly followed by New Zealand (81K tonnes), creating a 5.1% share of total exports. The U.S. (67K tonnes), Turkey (67K tonnes), Morocco (51K tonnes), Portugal (51K tonnes), the Netherlands (41K tonnes), France (36K tonnes), China (34K tonnes), Canada (33K tonnes) and Italy (33K tonnes) held a minor share of total exports.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest pumpkin markets worldwide were Mexico ($483M), Spain ($403M) and Morocco ($64M), with a combined 64% share of global exports. These countries were followed by the U.S., the Netherlands, France, Italy, New Zealand, Turkey, Portugal, China and Canada, which together accounted for a further 24%.

In terms of the main exporting countries, China experienced the highest growth rate of exports, over the last five-year period, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average pumpkin export price amounted to $939 per tonne, growing by 1.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the pumpkin export price, however, continues to indicate a slight drop. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when the average export price increased by 15% against the previous year. The global export price peaked at $1,017 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was the Netherlands ($1,442 per tonne), while Portugal ($449 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

Global imports totaled 1.5M tonnes in 2018, picking up by 19% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.2% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations over the period under review. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 when imports increased by 19% year-to-year. In that year, global pumpkin imports reached their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, pumpkin imports amounted to $1.4B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 5.4% against the previous year. In that year, global pumpkin imports attained their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

The U.S. was the key importing country with an import of around 508K tonnes, which amounted to 34% of total imports. It was distantly followed by France (159K tonnes), Germany (111K tonnes), the UK (109K tonnes), Japan (103K tonnes) and the Netherlands (68K tonnes), together creating a 37% share of total imports. Canada (55K tonnes), Russia (48K tonnes), Singapore (38K tonnes), Belgium (30K tonnes) and Italy (25K tonnes) occupied a minor share of total imports.

The U.S. was also the fastest-growing in terms of the pumpkin (squash and gourds) imports, with a CAGR of +7.8% from 2013 to 2018. At the same time, Germany (+4.8%), Russia (+4.0%), Canada (+3.4%), France (+1.6%) and the UK (+1.3%) displayed positive paces of growth. The Netherlands, Singapore, Japan and Italy experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Belgium (-4.4%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of the U.S. (+11 p.p.) and Germany (+1.5 p.p.) increased significantly, the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the U.S. ($414M) constitutes the largest market for imported pumpkin (squash and gourds) worldwide, comprising 30% of global imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($172M), with a 12% share of global imports. It was followed by Germany, with a 11% share.

In the U.S., pumpkin imports expanded at an average annual rate of +3.7% over the period from 2013-2018. The remaining importing countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: France (-1.5% per year) and Germany (+2.5% per year).

Import Prices by Country

The average pumpkin import price stood at $921 per tonne in 2018, declining by -11.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the pumpkin import price continues to indicate a moderate reduction. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 an increase of 18% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for pumpkin (squash and gourds) reached their maximum at $1,067 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Belgium ($1,463 per tonne), while Singapore ($544 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Italy, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

vegetable wax

Global Vegetable Waxes Market – Brazil Emerged As the World’s Largest Supplier, With a 45% Share of Total Exports

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Vegetable Waxes – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global vegetable waxes market revenue amounted to $536M in 2018, increasing by 3.7% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

Consumption By Country

China (18K tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of vegetable waxes consumption, comprising approx. 17% of total consumption. Moreover, vegetable waxes consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest consumer, India (7.2K tonnes), twofold. Russia (3.2K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total consumption with a 3.2% share.

In China, vegetable waxes consumption expanded at an average annual rate of +1.8% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: India (+0.5% per year) and Russia (-4.0% per year).

In value terms, China ($94M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by India ($38M). It was followed by the U.S..

In 2018, the highest levels of vegetable waxes per capita consumption was registered in Australia (78 kg per 1000 persons), followed by Russia (22 kg per 1000 persons), Pakistan (16 kg per 1000 persons) and Japan (16 kg per 1000 persons), while the world average per capita consumption of vegetable waxes was estimated at 13 kg per 1000 persons.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of the vegetable waxes per capita consumption in Australia stood at +8.8%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Russia (-4.4% per year) and Pakistan (-5.3% per year).

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the global production of vegetable waxes totaled 98K tonnes, growing by 3.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, vegetable waxes production, however, continues to indicate a moderate slump. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 with an increase of 8.2% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global vegetable waxes production attained its peak figure volume at 132K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, vegetable waxes production totaled $466M in 2018 estimated in export prices. In general, vegetable waxes production, however, continues to indicate a measured contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when production volume increased by 9.2% against the previous year. The global vegetable waxes production peaked at $612M in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of vegetable waxes production in 2018 were Brazil (17K tonnes), China (15K tonnes) and India (7.2K tonnes), with a combined 40% share of global production.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of vegetable waxes production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced mixed trends in the production figures.

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports stood at 31K tonnes in 2018, going down by -1.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, vegetable waxes exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 36% year-to-year. The global exports peaked at 61K tonnes in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, vegetable waxes exports amounted to $171M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, the total exports indicated a moderate expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value decreased at an average annual rate of -0.5% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes exports decreased by +0.4% against 2016 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when exports increased by 44% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global vegetable waxes exports attained their peak figure at $261M in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

Brazil was the largest exporter of vegetable waxes in the world, with the volume of exports accounting for 14K tonnes, which was near 45% of total exports in 2018. Indonesia (4,327 tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total exports with a 14% share, followed by the U.S. (11%), Mexico (5.8%) and Germany (5.6%). China (1,172 tonnes) and Japan (756 tonnes) occupied a relatively small share of total exports.

Brazil experienced a relatively flat trend pattern of vegetable waxes exports. At the same time, China (+8.4%), Germany (+6.3%), the U.S. (+4.9%), Mexico (+3.0%) and Japan (+1.0%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, China emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the world, with a CAGR of +8.4% from 2007-2018. By contrast, Indonesia (-5.8%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2018, the share of the U.S., Germany, China and Mexico increased by +4.6%, +2.7%, +2.2% and +1.6% percentage points, while Brazil (-4.2 p.p.) and Indonesia (-12.8 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Brazil ($93M) remains the largest vegetable waxes supplier worldwide, comprising 54% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Mexico ($18M), with a 10% share of global exports. It was followed by the U.S., with a 8.4% share.

In Brazil, vegetable waxes exports expanded at an average annual rate of +2.8% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Mexico (+11.9% per year) and the U.S. (+5.6% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The average vegetable waxes export price stood at $5,458 per tonne in 2018, declining by -3% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the export price indicated a notable expansion from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes export price decreased by -7.9% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 an increase of 27% year-to-year. The global export price peaked at $5,926 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, export prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Mexico ($9,814 per tonne), while Indonesia ($1,318 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Mexico, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 35K tonnes of vegetable waxes were imported worldwide; picking up by 6.4% against the previous year. In general, vegetable waxes imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2012 with an increase of 42% y-o-y. In that year, global vegetable waxes imports attained their peak of 72K tonnes. From 2013 to 2018, the growth of global vegetable waxes imports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, vegetable waxes imports totaled $208M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, the total imports indicated strong growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +0.8% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes imports increased by +12.5% against 2016 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 37% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global vegetable waxes imports reached their maximum at $263M in 2012; however, from 2013 to 2018, imports remained at a lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, the U.S. (6.2K tonnes), distantly followed by Germany (3,635 tonnes), China (3,444 tonnes), Japan (2,816 tonnes), Australia (1,967 tonnes) and the UK (1,660 tonnes) were the largest importers of vegetable waxes, together achieving 57% of total imports. France (1,412 tonnes), the Netherlands (1,338 tonnes), Estonia (1,328 tonnes), the Philippines (1,089 tonnes), Italy (994 tonnes) and South Korea (932 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Australia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest vegetable waxes importing markets worldwide were the U.S. ($40M), Germany ($25M) and China ($23M), with a combined 42% share of global imports. Japan, France, the Netherlands, the UK, South Korea, Italy, Estonia, Australia and the Philippines lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 36%.

Among the main importing countries, Australia experienced the highest growth rate of imports, over the last eleven years, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average vegetable waxes import price amounted to $5,964 per tonne, rising by 2.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the import price indicated a strong expansion from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +4.1% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, vegetable waxes import price increased by +64.5% against 2012 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 an increase of 34% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for vegetable waxes attained their peak figure in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was France ($8,360 per tonne), while the Philippines ($1,405 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

younger generation

How To Entice The Younger Generation Into Utility Careers

Unfortunately, there is a serious age crisis within the energy and utility sector at the moment. Many companies recognized, in approximately the 1990s, that they were facing a severe problem with the age demographics of their workers: younger people didn’t want to work in these areas, due to a number of factors such as better access to alternative education and a lack of faith in the sustainability or career options within such career pathways. However, this has only really started affecting business now, since the older wave of workers are beginning to retire, leaving energy companies scarce of any manpower. So, in these dire times, we must look to the younger generation to fill the gaps and become the new driving forces in the energy and utility sectors, but how can you entice them into joining your company?

Changing Attitudes

Of course, not all of your older workers are going to disappear overnight, so you have to consider the effect and impact that focusing on the younger generation might have on them, due to many cultural and societal clashes which are common between the differing ages of workers. Older workers may see younger workers as finicky and addicted to their material possessions – think less antiques and hand-me-downs and more iced coffees and mobile phones – which may create friction within the workplace which could put off younger workers. Make sure that any pre-existing staff are educated on diversity and how to be welcoming to the younger generation, and inform them of the changes which you are trying to make to the workforce, and the reasons behind your doing so. Education is the best way to avoid this being a problem.

Think Local

“Often, the best talent – and the most willing to work in our areas – is found locally,” says Richard Ford, an HR at Thesis Writers and Big Assignments, “since we often find that implementing training with the surrounding education centres and informational days for students is the way to go. Many kids from the cities won’t know much about creating electricity or the jobs which are involved with energy, but if we reach out to the students living around our workplace and teach them how they can go far in our business, often the pull to stay near home and find a stable job leads them to join a career in our sector, since they can often stay near family and childhood friends, and work and live in a town which they are familiar with.”

In short, education – not only of your staff, but also your possible future staff – is the way to go. Make sure that you are taking advantage of every opportunity to reach out into the local schools and colleges and inform the students of the career options which they have, which are closer to home than frightening and unknown office jobs in big cities with long commutes.

Appealing To The Younger Generation

“The current workplace has been shaped by the older, “baby boomer” generation, who helped to make the culture and social atmosphere of workplaces everywhere appear how they are today,” explains Amanda Wills, an HR at Dissertation Writing Service and Essay Services.

However, in order to appeal to the younger generation, you may need to make a couple of changes, keeping in mind the differing social climate of today. Generally, younger people are more conscious of their social standing, in regards to giving back to communities, so making sure that your company does a lot of work in the community is vital. Younger workers may also want to have more of a say in how the company is managed, so letting them take part in important decisions and making sure that everyone feels like their voice is being heard is also a good idea.

“Although they’re not ‘snowflakes’, younger people do require a different working climate to the generation which we are used to, which may make appealing to them seem a little difficult at first,” Jade Coates, a journalist at UKWritings and Boomessays, states, “but once you have put the changes in place, you’ll find it easy to attract younger workers and revive the life in your workforce, or so to speak! Education is usually the best method, but making sure that you are open and honest is also important, and keeping all rules and regulations (including social guidelines for your working staff) regularly updated is also a good idea, to remove any chances for friction or problems before they can happen.”

Summary

The younger generation may seem difficult to attract to jobs in the utility and energy sectors, but it only takes a little bit of change to get them on board. Investing in education opportunities and keeping your current staff up-to-date and welcoming is always a plus, and developing your workplace for the modern era by keeping the community and social morals in mind can make your company appear more inviting and viable.

________________________________________________________________

Aimee Laurence writes professionally for Top Assignment Writing Services NSW and Research paper help services. She has a personal interest in the energy industry and enjoys spreading her knowledge on the creation of electricity and the workforce behind it. Also, Aimee is a tutor at Student Writing Services.

 

south american

Embracing the South American Ecommerce Marketplace

Ecommerce is on the rise in South America. Double-digit growth is expected for 2019 with sales of $71.34 billion (USD), tying it with the Middle East and Africa as the world’s second-fastest-growing retail ecommerce market. 

That’s great news for shippers looking to expand their online retail presence in South America.

A diamond in the rough

Online retailers in South America have been struggling for years to overcome several obstacles to success, including extensive customs delays, poor transportation infrastructure, and the lack of end-to-end supply chain visibility. Progress has been made on all three of these “challenges,” but more work is necessary to ensure the region’s continued double-digit growth. 

Within each challenge lies opportunity

While these obstacles may keep a few shippers from expanding into South America, others are viewing the area as a “diamond in the rough” and working diligently to reap the rewards of this truly untapped region. 

Having the right information is the first step to wading through the muck and mire of this complicated ecommerce marketplace:

South America customs vary by country

Red tape and bureaucracy pose the biggest obstacles for importing products into South American countries. In addition to customs taxes, tariffs, and fees, it can take 30+ days for some goods to be cleared through customs, especially in Brazil and Argentina. As a result, inventory builds up, costs rise, and customers wait longer for their products to arrive. In comparison, however, Chilean customs are very similar to the U.S. and allow products to flow through relatively quickly.

As you can tell, customs procedures can differ significantly, making it difficult for shippers to ensure compliance with each region’s unique customs. For a more seamless process, it’s essential shippers work with a customs broker or third party logistics provider (3PL) with local offices in the area. They’ll know the customs standards and understand the paperwork necessary to ensure products are approved for import.

Free trade agreements 

The United States-Chile trade agreement allows all U.S. exports of consumer and industrial products to enter Chile duty free. While still in the works, the United States-Brazil free trade agreement can help facilitate trade and boost investment between the two countries, especially in infrastructure. The United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement eliminates tariffs on 80% of U.S. consumer and industrial imports into Colombia. 

South America infrastructure at port and inland

South America is hobbled by its inadequate infrastructure, and it’s probably not going to change anytime soon. Roads remain the primary means of transportation, but 60% are unpaved, hampering the speed of delivery by truck to inland locations. Improvements are slowly occurring, thanks to increased government funding (but corruption hampers many efforts). It’s worth mentioning that China, the largest trading partner of Brazil, Chile, and Peru, invests heavily in the region, providing more than $140 billion (USD) in loans for infrastructure improvements in the past decade, according to The Business Year.  

While surface transportation remains stagnant, ocean freight shows promise. According to icontainers.com, routes going to and from South America represent 15% of the total number of trade services.

The largest container port in South America is in the city of Santos in Brazil’s Sao Paulo state. Its location provides easy access to the hinterlands via the Serra do Mar mountain range. More than 40% of Brazil’s containers are handled by the Port of Santos as well as nearly 33% of its trade, and 60 % of Brazil’s GDP, according to JOC.com

In 2018, Brazil’s busiest container cargo port handled 4.3 million TEUs, compared with 3.85 million TEUs in 2017. 

For Argentina, Zarate serves as the critical port for roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) and breakbulk cargo, while Buenos Aires and Rosario serve as the top container ports. Only two countries in South America are landlocked, Paraguay and Bolivia. 

Shippers and ocean carriers using the Port of Santos have been complaining about congestion and labor disputes at the port, and about politicization and time-consuming bureaucracy. That’s why it’s essential that shippers must have the latest information on traffic through these South American ports. Global freight forwarding companies in the area will have the newest information available to help you choose the right port of entry for your freight.

End-to-end supply chain visibility

Most online retailers and carriers understand that the sale is not complete until the product is delivered to the consumer. If merchandise is damaged during transport or arrives much later than promised, it reflects poorly on both parties and undermines consumer trust in ecommerce purchases. 

Lack of adequate infrastructure has forced many online retailers to put logistics on the back burner, focusing on the user experience through purchase. That’s why many products take weeks to arrive at the customer’s door, setting a bad precedent that must change. 

The South America trucking industry is highly fragmented, with providers ranging from owner-operators (about one-third of the industry) to sizable fleet operators and experienced freight forwarders who may not own any trucks at all, according to Tire Business newspaper. 

Final mile, LTL services paramount in South America

Once your product reaches port in South America and makes it through customs, how it gets delivered to the customer’s door can add extensive costs to your supply chain. Less than truckload (LTL) and final mile services are paramount to successfully operating in the region. Especially those carriers that can provide GPS freight tracking capabilities, such as C.H. Robinson’s Navisphere® technology

Final thoughts

Yes, there are obstacles to operating a supply chain in South American countries. Knowing the ins and outs of each country’s unique customs procedure, understanding which South American ports are best for your freight, and being able to track your shipments end-to-end will ensure your success in the region. Shippers who realize the potential of this “diamond in the rough” marketplace should work with a freight forwarder who will be extra focused and diligent in ensuring their freight moves quickly from customs fiscal warehouses to the final destinations. 

Enlist the aid of a global freight forwarding provider, like C.H. Robinson, who offers a global suite of services and has offices in the region that can help navigate any disruption in your supply chain.

Start the discussion with an expert in South America to accelerate your ecommerce trade. 

european market

European Market for Citrus Fruit Jams and Purees – France Benefits from the Highest Export Price ($4,292 per tonne)

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Citrus Fruit Jams, Marmalades, Jellies, Purees Or Pastes – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The market revenue for citrus fruit preserves (jams, marmalades, jellies, purees, and pastes) in the European Union amounted to $319M in 2018, growing by 8% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, citrus fruit preserves consumption, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 22% against the previous year. The level of citrus fruit preserves consumption peaked at $331M in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of citrus fruit preserves consumption in 2018 were the UK (26K tonnes), Italy (24K tonnes) and Spain (18K tonnes), with a combined 56% share of total consumption. France, the Netherlands, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Romania, Ireland, Poland and Hungary lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 33%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($83M), Italy ($60M) and France ($42M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 58% share of the total market. These countries were followed by Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Romania, Germany, Hungary and Poland, which together accounted for a further 32%.

The countries with the highest levels of citrus fruit preserves per capita consumption in 2018 were Ireland (591 kg per 1000 persons), Italy (412 kg per 1000 persons) and Belgium (410 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 125K tonnes of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes were produced in the European Union; rising by 13% against the previous year. Overall, citrus fruit preserves production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when production volume increased by 29% y-o-y. The volume of citrus fruit preserves production peaked at 138K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves production amounted to $313M in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +1.1% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 when production volume increased by 22% against the previous year. In that year, citrus fruit preserves production attained its peak level of $338M. From 2009 to 2018, citrus fruit preserves production growth remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of citrus fruit preserves production in 2018 were the UK (26K tonnes), Spain (24K tonnes) and Italy (24K tonnes), with a combined 59% share of total production. France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, the Czech Republic, Romania, Denmark, Hungary and Poland lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 36K tonnes of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes were exported in the European Union; surging by 7.5% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.7% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 with an increase of 14% y-o-y. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves exports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves exports stood at $87M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 15% y-o-y. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves exports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

The exports of the eight major exporters of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes, namely Spain, the UK, Germany, France, Denmark, Italy, Belgium and Ireland, represented more than two-thirds of total export.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($19M), the UK ($15M) and Spain ($15M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, with a combined 55% share of total exports.

In terms of the main exporting countries, Spain recorded the highest growth rate of exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The citrus fruit preserves export price in the European Union stood at $2,436 per tonne in 2018, increasing by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the citrus fruit preserves export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when the export price increased by 15% y-o-y. In that year, the export prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes reached their peak level of $3,042 per tonne. From 2014 to 2018, the growth in terms of the export prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was France ($4,292 per tonne), while Denmark ($1,750 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes imported in the European Union amounted to 32K tonnes, going up by 11% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 36% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves imports stood at $69M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when imports increased by 28% year-to-year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves imports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

France (7,472 tonnes) and the UK (6,570 tonnes) represented roughly 43% of total imports of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes in 2018. Germany (3,454 tonnes) ranks next in terms of the total imports with a 11% share, followed by Italy (9.5%), Ireland (9.1%) and Portugal (6%). Poland (1,196 tonnes), Sweden (1,188 tonnes), Spain (1,175 tonnes), the Netherlands (759 tonnes) and Belgium (565 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($14M), France ($13M) and Germany ($10M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 54% share of total imports. Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Sweden, Spain, Belgium, Poland and the Netherlands lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 37%.

Portugal recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The citrus fruit preserves import price in the European Union stood at $2,121 per tonne in 2018, approximately mirroring the previous year. Overall, the citrus fruit preserves import price continues to indicate a mild slump. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 7% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the import prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes attained their maximum at $2,824 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($4,655 per tonne), while Ireland ($1,386 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

carousel

CAROUSEL RETALIATION: TARIFF UNCERTAINTY ON ANOTHER RIDE

The Ride Music Starts

On October 2, a World Trade Organization (WTO) arbitrator rendered a decision that authorizes the United States to apply retaliatory tariffs on as much as $7.5 billion worth of European exports each year until WTO-illegal European subsidies to its aircraft industry are removed.

In a press release issued that day, the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) announced that beginning October 18, the United States would apply WTO-approved tariffs on a list of EU products. The list includes 10 percent duties on civil aircraft, but also 25 percent duties on goods we consume directly including butter, various cheeses, clementines, clams, green olives and single-malt Irish and Scotch Whiskies.

Before their next cocktail party, U.S. shoppers might stock up to beat the tariffs, but they may not want to go overboard buying Parmigiano Reggiano. That’s because the Administration is reportedly considering what is known as “carousel” retaliation – a regular rotation of goods targeted for tariffs, designed to impose maximum pain. The United States and Europe have been on this ride before.

Theme Park Rules

In a trade dispute, the parties first enter into consultations. If they are unable to come to an agreement, the complainant may request a WTO panel to review the dispute. Once the panel issues a report, the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) will adopt it, unless a party appeals it or all DSB members vote against adoption.

If there is an appeal, the Appellate Body reviews the case and delivers its findings, together with the panel report as modified by the appeal, to the DSB. If the complaining party wins, the losing party is given a “reasonable” period of time to implement the decision. The original panel may be called upon to determine if the losing party implemented the ruling in the agreed timeframe. If not, there are two alternatives for the party bringing the case: seek compensation or retaliate. In the latter case, the complainant estimates its loss, the losing party can seek arbitration on the level, and the DSB authorizes the final amount.

Such countermeasures should be “equivalent” to the injury caused and “related to” the economic sector of the illegal measure, with the goal to induce the removal of the offending measure. Often the offending party will, in fact, withdraw the measure before the imposition of authorized retaliatory measures.

US wins 7.5 billion dispute against EU on Airbus illegal subsidies

Beef and Bananas – How Carousel Started

In some cases, applying tariffs on imports isn’t enough to induce compliance. When the United States, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico won their case in the WTO challenging the legality of Europe’s banana import policy, the European Union (EU) failed to comply with the ruling, even in the face of nearly $200 million in U.S. tariffs.

U.S. banana exporters, increasingly frustrated with the EU’s lack of compliance with the WTO ruling, looked to Congress to enact a new tool to increase the pressure. They found allies in U.S. livestock exporters, who had won a WTO case that a European ban on U.S. imports of meat produced with hormones was inconsistent with the EU’s WTO obligations. As with the banana case, the EU had employed delaying tactics to stall implementation of the panel decision against it.

Riding a New Horse

Two months after USTR imposed retaliatory tariffs in the beef hormone dispute, a group of Senators introduced S.1619, the Carousel Retaliation Act of 1999. Proposed as an amendment to Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, its provisions would have required USTR to “carousel” or rotate its product retaliation list when an offending country does not implement a WTO decision. More specifically, USTR was to rotate items 120 days after the first retaliation list and every 180 days thereafter, with the ability to opt not to do so if compliance is imminent or rotation is deemed unnecessary. The bill language ultimately became part of the Trade and Development Act of 2000.

While banana and meat producers were supportive, other industries were not. Some argued that frequently rotating the products subjects to tariffs would be challenging for retailers. The EU contended the method was WTO inconsistent, though the WTO never ruled on the matter.

USTR ultimately did not pull the trigger to rotate its retaliatory tariff list in either the banana or beef cases as the matters got bound up in a separate dispute over U.S. tax benefits for foreign sales corporations (FSC). The EU had previously won a case against FSC and the U.S. amended its law in November 2000 in response. The EU challenged whether that revision brought the measure into WTO compliance. The United States and EU agreed informally that the EU would not pursue sanctions in the FSC case, but if the United States revised its product lists under the carousel provisions, all bets were off. Ultimately, the WTO ruled the revised U.S. law was not compliant, the United States lost its appeal, and the issue was not resolved until five years later.

Others Get on the Ride

The United States develops retaliation lists with an eye to maximizing pain on the trading partner that committed the foul, while trying to minimize the inevitable adverse impact on its own consumers and firms. Mexico has adeptly turned this practice against the United States in response to practices it viewed as inconsistent with WTO or NAFTA obligations.

NAFTA provisions governing retaliation state that an injured party should first “seek to suspend benefits in the same sector” as that covered by the restrictive measure. If it is not practical or effective to suspend benefits in the same sector, the injured party “may suspend benefits in other sectors.”

During the original NAFTA negotiations, the United States and Mexico agreed to phase out restrictions on cross-border passenger and cargo services. In 1995, however, the United States announced it would not lift restrictions on Mexican trucks and, in 2001, a NAFTA dispute panel found the U.S. to be in breach of its obligations. After years of negotiation and a false start with a U.S. pilot program, Mexico retaliated in 2009 on more than $2 billion worth of U.S. goods.

Mexico used a carousel approach, rotating different products on and off the retaliation list. The first list of 89 products went into effect in March 2009. The list was revised in August 2010, by removing 16 of the listed products and adding 26 more, bringing the total number of products on the updated list to 99. Through this method, Mexico was able to target key pain points, leading the U.S. to institute another pilot program in 2011, and Mexico to remove its tariffs.

More recently, when the Trump Administration moved forward with 25 percent tariffs on Mexican steel imports and 10 percent tariffs on Mexican aluminum imports in June 2018, Mexico responded with retaliatory tariffs on $2.7 billion of U.S. goods that included various steel products but also pork legs, apples, cheese and other agricultural products that had seen significant growth in export value and market share in Mexico.

In March 2019, Mexico’s Deputy Economy Minister Luz Maria de la Mora stated that if the United States did not repeal the tariffs, her government would have an updated list in its “carousel” of U.S. targets ready in about two months, noting that Mexico would bring in some new products and remove others. In early May, she announced the revised list was ready and under final review, but the United States agreed in mid-May to remove its tariffs, hoping to boost the chances of ratification of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) agreement.

Round and Round We Go

Perhaps symbolic of the differences that the United States and Europe are trying to bridge, in America carousels turn counterclockwise and in England and much of Europe, they rotate clockwise.

Some observers see the recently announced U.S. retaliation list against the EU as more restrained than expected. Tariff rates of 100 percent had been possible and some of the announced exemptions were not anticipated. We’ll soon know more about the Trump Administration’s thinking on a carousel approach and how the Europeans will respond. There are no height restrictions to get on this tariff retaliation ride, but riders may need to buckle up.

__________________________________________________________________

Leslie Griffin is Principal of Boston-based Allinea LLC. She was previously Senior Vice President for International Public Policy for UPS and is a past president of the Association of Women in International Trade in Washington, D.C.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

fruits nuts

U.S. – Fruits, Nuts And Peel (Sugar Preserved) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘U.S. – Fruits, Nuts And Peel (Sugar Preserved) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

Exports from the U.S.

In 2018, the amount of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) exported from the U.S. stood at 5.2K tonnes, shrinking by -7.3% against the previous year. Overall, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) continue to indicate a slight reduction. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2009 with an increase of 42% y-o-y. Exports peaked at 9.3K tonnes in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) totaled $11M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) continue to indicate a slight contraction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 with an increase of 76% against the previous year. In that year, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) reached their peak of $21M. From 2010 to 2018, the growth of exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) failed to regain its momentum.

Exports by Country

Canada (1.8K tonnes) was the main destination for exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) from the U.S., with a 35% share of total exports. Moreover, exports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) to Canada exceeded the volume sent to the second major destination, Saudi Arabia (385 tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by China (352 tonnes), with a 6.8% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume to Canada stood at +16.1%. Exports to the other major destinations recorded the following average annual rates of exports growth: Saudi Arabia (+11.9% per year) and China (+9.2% per year).

In value terms, Canada ($2.7M), China ($1.6M) and Turkey ($888K) constituted the largest markets for sweetened dried fruit and nut exported from the U.S. worldwide, together accounting for 46% of total exports.

Turkey recorded the highest growth rate of exports, among the main countries of destination over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The average export price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) stood at $2,198 per tonne in 2018, coming down by -1.5% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the export price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved), however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 an increase of 25% year-to-year. In that year, the average export prices for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) attained their peak level of $2,776 per tonne. From 2010 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average export prices for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) failed to regain its momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Turkey ($4,656 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Australia ($983 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to Taiwan, Chinese, while the prices for the other major destinations experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into the U.S.

In 2018, the imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) into the U.S. totaled 9.4K tonnes, picking up by 22% against the previous year. In general, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved), however, continue to indicate a slight downturn. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2018 with an increase of 22% y-o-y. Imports peaked at 12K tonnes in 2010; however, from 2011 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) stood at $32M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 18% year-to-year. Over the period under review, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Thailand (4.5K tonnes) constituted the largest supplier of sweetened dried fruit and nut to the U.S., with a 48% share of total imports. Moreover, imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) from Thailand exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest supplier, China (827 tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Fiji (722 tonnes), with a 7.7% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume from Thailand totaled -1.1%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: China (-1.9% per year) and Fiji (+20.1% per year).

In value terms, Thailand ($14.2M) constituted the largest supplier of sweetened dried fruit and nut to the U.S., comprising 45% of total imports of fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved). The second position in the ranking was occupied by Fiji ($3.5M), with a 11% share of total imports. It was followed by China, with a 11% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of value from Thailand totaled +3.4%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: Fiji (+23.8% per year) and China (+0.5% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average import price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) amounted to $3,379 per tonne, falling by -9.4% against the previous year. Overall, the import price indicated a noticeable increase from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +3.5% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, import price for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) increased by +54.7% against 2009 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2013 an increase of 27% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for fruits, nuts and peel (sugar preserved) reached their peak figure at $3,729 per tonne in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major supplying countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Fiji ($4,917 per tonne), while the price for India ($1,887 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Mexico, while the prices for the other major suppliers experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

USMCA

THESE COMPANIES KEEP CROSS-BORDER CARGO MOVING, EVEN WITH USMCA UP IN THE AIR

Our trilateral trade bloc is in a sort of limbo, stuck between the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that went into effect on Jan. 1, 1994, and the floundering United States Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA), which the countries’ leaders signed on Nov. 30, 2018, but has only been ratified in Mexico.

According to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, which has pushed for more ease of free trade among the three nations for years, about $1.7 billion worth of goods and services flow between the U.S. and Mexico borders every day. That’s about 2 percent of the GDP in America, where, according to the United Nations’ International Trade Center, Mexico and Canada are the two largest trading partners for U.S. manufacturers and shippers after China.

Despite these uncertain times, there are North American cross-border traders that continue to thrive. Consider the collection that follows. 

AVERITT EXPRESS

One of the nation’s leading freight transportation and supply chain management providers, Averitt is celebrating 50 years of service. The company cites customized, cross-border transportation solutions among its many, many specialties. Five years ago, Averitt slashed less-than-truckload (LTL) service times from the U.S. Midwest to Ontario, Canada, in recognition of the province’s rise as a manufacturing hub. Averitt’s strategically placed border service centers in Laredo, El Paso, Harlingen and Del Rio provide easy access to all points throughout Mexico, by rail, truck or expedited air. 

BNSF RAILWAY

One of North America’s leading freight transportation companies, BNSF boasts a.32,500 route-mile network covering 28 U.S. states and three Canadian provinces. The railway utilizes multiple strategies to make international shipments easier for customers. These include market experience, customs clearance know-how and participation in special North American rail service alliances. The BNSF network also includes five U.S.-Mexico gateways (San Diego, El Paso, Eagle Pass, Laredo and Brownsville) and operations in Fort Worth, Texas, and Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey, Mexico. Service options include carload, transload and intermodal (Mexi-Modal) that allow for shipments of all major commodities into and out of Mexico.  

CG RAILWAY

Picture in your head a railroad line extending from the American South to southern Mexico. You can imagine the track snaking along the contour of the Gulf of Mexico, extending west from Alabama through Mississippi and Louisiana before reaching Texas and turning due south through the border and beyond. What you did not picture was a shift from rail at Alabama’s Port of Mobile to an ocean ferry making a direct route over water to Puerto Coatzacoalcos in Veracruz, Mexico. That’s what CG Railway (CGR) has been doing since 2000: providing a faster, more cost-effective route between the eastern U.S. and Canada to central and southern Mexico. CGR offers C-TPAT (Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism) certification, bilingual customer support, proactive port security, reduced mileage and wear and tear on equipment and direct interchanges with the CSX, Norfolk Southern, Canadian National and Kansas City Southern railroads, the Alabama & Gulf Coast Railway and Terminal Railway Alabama State Docks and their Mexican counterparts. 

CN NORTH AMERICA

Canadian National is based in Montreal, Quebec, and the Class I freight railway’s network is the largest in that country by physical size and revenue. Established in 1919 and formerly government-owned, Canada’s only transcontinental railway spans from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia, across about 20,400 route miles of track. But you’d be mistaken to think CN, as it has more commonly known since 1960, is strictly a Great White North concern. The railway also serves the U.S. South and Midwest and, having gone private in 1995, it now counts as its single largest shareholder Bill Gates. Through the ’90s and 2000s, CN North America has acquired multiple lines passing through several U.S. states.

CROWLEY

The private, Jacksonville, Florida-based corporation is the largest operator of tugboats and barges in the world. Crowley American Transport provides ocean liner cargo services between the U.S., Canada, Mexico, South America and the Caribbean. Its American Marine Transport unit delivers local, over-the-road, and commercial trucking services in the continental U.S. Crowley Marine Services provides worldwide contract and specialized marine transportation services, including petroleum product transportation and sales, tanker escort and ship assist, contract barge transportation and ocean towing, logistics and support services, marine salvage and emergency response services, spill-response services on the West Coast and all-terrain transportation services.

CSX TRANSPORTATION

The subsidiary of CSX Corp., a Fortune 500 company headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, CSX Transportation is a Class I freight railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The railroad operates around 21,000 route miles of track. While its lines blanket the east coasts of Canada and the U.S., you don’t have to be located on railroad track for CSX to help you, as it has access to 70 ports and nationwide transloading and warehousing services.

DB SCHENKER 

The global logistics and supply chain management giant has 93 branches in every U.S. state, Mexico and Canada. Schenker of Canada Ltd. provides logistics services, airfreight, custom brokerage, custom consulting, sports events, land transport and courier services. DB Schenker Mexico celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2017, having begun down there with a single location and 40 associates and now boasting of 500 employees in its corporate office in Mexico City as well as in Guadalajara, Monterrey, Queretaro, Puebla, Cancun, Ciudad Juarez and various other branches. DB Schenker Mexico offers air freight, ocean freight, land freight, customs brokerage, over-dimensioned projects, warehousing and contract logistics.

KANSAS CITY SOUTHERN

The KCS North American rail holdings and strategic alliances are primary components of a NAFTA railway system linking the commercial and industrial centers of the U.S., Mexico and Canada. “KCS is just one interchange away from every major market in North America,” boasts the railroad. KC Southern de Mexico offers unique rail access to the Port of Lazaro Cardenas on Mexico’s Pacific coast, which is an ideal spot to avoid congestion in U.S. West Coast ports. KCS also has access to Gulf of Mexico ports, including Altamira, Tampico and Veracruz in Mexico and Brownsville, New Orleans, Corpus Christi, Houston, Gulfport, Lake Charles, Mobile and Port Arthur in the U.S. 

LIVINGSTON INTERNATIONAL

Billed as North America’s No. 1 company focused on customs brokerage and compliance, Livingston International also offers international trade consulting and freight forwarding across the continent and around the globe. Headquartered in Chicago, Livingston operates along the U.S.-Canada border, with regional air/sea hubs in Los Angeles, New York and Norfolk. Livingston employs more than 3,200 employees at more than 125 key border points, seaports, airports and other strategic locations in North America, Europe and the Far East. Livingston is a customs brokerage leader in Canada, and the company also promises to move goods seamlessly into Mexico.

LOGISTICS PLUS

Whether it is working as a 3PL or 4PL partner, the Erie, Pennsylvania-based company specializes in total logistics management, LTL and truckload transportation, rail and intermodal services, project cargo and project management, import/export services, air and ocean freight forwarding, warehousing and distribution, global trade compliance services and logistics and technology solutions. Logistics Plus serves small and large businesses throughout the Greater Toronto Area, with an office in the zone that has access to the Port of Toronto and expertise in shipping in and out of Canada though the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Bilingual logistics experts help customers with intra-Mexico, cross-border, or international shipping using air, ocean, ground or rail transportation. 

LYNDEN

Seattle-based Lynden not only delivers to, from and within Canada, the company does business there. Its long-established Canadian presence allows it to provide complete coverage for any transportation need. They can help with warehousing and distribution or 3PL in Canada, where Lynden boasts of knowing “the ins and outs of customs brokerage, duties and taxes, imports and exports.” From its offices in Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta, and Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Lynden offers scheduled less-than-truckload (LTL) and truckload (TL) service to points in Alaska and the Lower 48.

LYNNCO

The Tulsa, Oklahoma-based company optimizes customers’ supply chains coast-to-coast in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. LynnCo manages businesses and determines how and when ground, international air/ocean, spot/capacity, procurement and expedited services are the best options. For instance, LynnCo helped a U.S. manufacturer determine if shifting units to Mexico was profitable. The answer was no after factoring in the risks of moving, poor facilities, added shipping costs and product quality. 

POLARIS TRANSPORTATION GROUP

Billing itself as “an American company headquartered in Toronto,” Polaris has a quarter century of experience in scheduled LTL service between the U.S. and Canada. The company knows both countries’ customs rules and participates in every border security program, including C-TPAT, PIP (Partners in Protection), CSA (Customs Self- Assessment) and FAST (Free and Secure Trade). The company’s scheduled service connects Ontario and Quebec markets with the U.S. through a combination of its fleet and facilities along with those of its long-established partner carriers.

PUROLATOR INTERNATIONAL

The U.S. subsidiary of Canada’s leading provider of integrated freight and parcel delivery services, Jericho, New York-based Purolator International seamlessly transports shipments between the U.S. and Canada and manages the respective countries’ customs processes with aplomb. They pick up/drop off at every point in the U.S. and boast of a distribution network that extends to every Canadian province and territory. What truly takes Purolator International over the top is a commitment to continue improving, as evidenced by a recent $1 billion growth investment that includes two new hubs that will allow for faster fulfillment for both courier and e-commerce shipments from the U.S. throughout Canada, where consumers also will be seeing more access points, including upgraded retail pickup locations.

R+L GLOBAL

“Shipping to Mexico is facil,” according to Ocala, Florida-based R+L Global Logistics. Its qualified network of premium carriers in Mexico provide secure door-to-door Less than Truckload (LTL) and Full Truckload (FTL) services. They cover the entire Mexican territory and move cargo across all major U.S./Mexico border gateways. They also move intra-Mexico shipments. 

SCHNEIDER

The Green Bay, Wisconsin-based giant specializes in regional trucking, long-haul, bulk, intermodal, supply chain management, brokerage, warehousing, port logistics and transloading. Decades of cross-border freight experience means customer cargo moves without question or delay. Once goods move across the border, Schneider has the assets and personnel in place to deliver it safely and securely. “Here’s the simple fact: No one makes shipping to Canada and Mexico easier or more efficient than Schneider,” the company boasts. “By road or by rail, your freight is in the best hands possible.”

SENKO 

The Japanese logistics giant has offices in the U.S., where their own trucks and warehouses work with a network of vendors. The 3PL/4PL supply chain solutions provider uses its own IT technology developed in Japan to help arrange liquid tank transportation, flatbed, drayage, refrigerated, dry, expedited shipping and freight broker services. Senko Logistics Mexico is the company unit south of the border.

SUNSET TRANSPORTATION

The St. Louis-based company has offices and agents across the country, and customers whose shipments are moved around the globe. Sunset arranges freight for a wide range of industries, from wholesale food distribution to specialized construction equipment. “Cross-border solutions” include customs clearance for land, rail, air and ocean, LTL, TL, intermodal, rail, air, expedited and specialized freight, contracted lane and spot market, C-TPAT compliance, multimodal programs, a Laredo, Texas, warehouse and distribution facility and 24/7 bilingual, bicultural support.

SURGERE 

Headquartered in North Canton, Ohio, Surgere is a leader in linking OEMs, tier suppliers and logistics providers through an automotive data system that provides visibility on returnable containers at every stage of their movement between supplier and vehicle maker. The supply chain innovators, whose clients include Nissan and CEVA Logistics, recently opened Technologias Avanzadas Surgere de Mexico in Aguascalientes, Mexico, which has more than 1,300 suppliers and automotive plants within 200 kilometers of the location. “Central Mexico is the automotive hub for Latin America—making it a natural progression—and a welcomed challenge for us,” explained David Hampton, Surgere’s vice president for International Operations, in announcing the move. Surgere hopes to have the Mexico office fully staffed before the end of this year.

TQL

Cincinnati, Ohio-based Total Quality Logistics (TQL) was founded in 1997 and is now the second-largest freight brokerage firm in the nation, with more than 5,500 employees in 57 offices across the county. Known for combining industry-leading technology and unmatched customer service, TQL boasts of providing competitive pricing, continuous communication and “a commitment to do it right every time.” They move more than 1.6 million loads across the U.S., Canada and Mexico annually through a broad portfolio of logistics services and a network of more than 75,000 carriers.

USA TRUCK

The Van Buren, Arkansas-based company provides customized truckload, dedicated contract carriage, intermodal and third-party logistics freight management services throughout North America. USA Truck has nearly two decades of experience servicing Mexico, which has allowed the company to expand its presence south of the border and partner with many Mexican carriers. USA Truck’s Capacity Solutions coordinates transportation into and out of Mexico with a vast carrier network, and they service most major Mexican markets and consistently maintain C-TPAT certification. USA Truck also has a select fleet of third-party carriers providing service into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, Canada.

UTXL

Launched in 1997 by four founders with more than 100 years of combined asset-based trucking experience, UTXL started with this goal: to be the safest, most reliable and cost effective niche capacity resource to customers in support of their core carrier programs. UTXL has served thousands of shippers across the U.S., Canada and Mexico, including some of the largest shippers in the world. One of their mottos is: “Any point in the U.S., Canada or Mexico … any length of haul.”

WERNER ENTERPRISES

“We keep America moving” is the motto of this Omaha, Nebraska-based company that has one of the largest transportation services to and from Mexico and is a premiere long-haul carrier to and from Canada and throughout North America. Werner has offices in Mexico and Canada as well as experienced and knowledgeable staff engineer solutions. PAR documentation allows for quicker access through customs into Canada, and their network of alliance carriers can manage entire supply chains within Canada and Mexico regardless of equipment needs.

WW SOLUTIONS

The unit of Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics participates in Mexico’s automotive industry not only as a carrier and logistics provider. WW Solutions specializes in processing solutions at ports and at OEM plants, providing services that include pre-delivery inspections, accessory fittings, repairs, storage, washing, vehicle preparation, quality control, inventory management and the procurement of technical services.

YRC FREIGHT

Yellow Transportation (founded in 1924 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) merged with Roadway (founded in 1930 in Akron, Ohio) to create YRC Freight, which is the largest subsidiary of YRC Worldwide Inc. based in Overland Park, Kansas. A leading transporter of industrial, commercial and retail goods, YRC Freight offers solutions for businesses across North America and is the only carrier with on-site, bilingual representatives at border crossing points in Mexico to expedite customs clearance.

C-TPAT

C-TPAT DRIVES SUPPLY CHAIN SECURITY AND TRADE COMPLIANCE

In today’s ever-chaining business environment, organizations are faced with ongoing security challenges. It’s crucial for shippers to understand any potential risks to their supply chains and establish security plans to avoid disruption. One significant way for shippers to proactively protect their operations is by becoming a member of the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) program.

Established in 2001, as a direct result of the September 11 terror attacks, the C-TPAT program is part of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s (CBP) multi-layered cargo enforcement strategy. Through this voluntary program, the CBP works with the importers, shippers, carriers, brokers and logistics providers to implement best practices for ensuring a safe, secure and expeditious supply chain. Today, there are more than 11,400 certified C-TPAT partners in the program, and these companies account for more than 52 percent of the products imported into the U.S.

C-TPAT Member Benefits

In addition to promoting supply chain security, participating in the C-TPAT program can yield significant benefits for shippers and transportation providers, including:

Fewer customs inspections – C-TPAT certification offers companies the opportunity to decrease customs inspections and documentation reviews. According to the CBP, C-TPAT members are 3.5 times less likely to incur a security or compliance examination. 

Faster border crossings – Members have access to special Free and Secure Trade (FAST) lanes at border crossings, and can move to the front of the line during inspections. This can significantly expedite border crossings at many Canada/Mexico land border ports.

Quick response time – Following a national emergency, companies participating in the C-TPAT program are eligible to resume business first. 

Enhanced reputation – Participating in a national security program reflects a company’s ongoing commitment to safety. Some companies will only do business with importers that are C-TPAT certified–giving members a competitive edge. 

Cost avoidance – By decreasing potential supply chain disruptions, C-TPAT members can avoid costs associated with delayed shipments. Additionally, organizations penalized in any way is eligible to receive up to a 50 percent reduction on the imposed fine. 

Joining C-TPAT

While almost every organization that is involved in the import and export business can enroll in the C-TPAT program, eligibility requirements vary by business type. But to achieve certification, all companies are required to:

-Conduct a risk assessment

-Implement a supply chain security management system that complies with C-TPAT requirements

-Submit a detailed application

 -Meet with CBP representatives to verify security measures

In addition to obtaining their own certification, organizations can support the C-TPAT program by working with third-party logistics (3PL) providers that are also C-TPAT certified. C-TPAT-certified 3PLs act as an additional layer of protection against supply chain attacks, because they operate as an extension of the company’s established security procedures, essentially building a stronger company brand. 

A 3PL with active participation in the Mexican and Canadian markets also brings a portfolio of carriers and companies that are approved by C-TPAT, or that comply with minimum requirements for C-TPAT partners, essentially giving shippers a competitive advantage. 

Addressing Evolving Supply Chain Risks


As supply chain risk continues to evolve, so too do the C-TPAT requirements. In May, the CBP announced that it has added Minimum-Security Criteria (MSC) requirements to the C-TPAT guidelines to help further mitigate risks. Some of the areas that were incorporated and updated in the program’s new criteria included:

-Issues related to cyber security

-Protection of the supply chain from agricultural contaminants and pests

-Prevention of money laundering and terrorism financing

-The proper use and management of security technology, such as intrusion alarms and security camera systems

-Members are expected to implement the new criteria throughout the remainder of 2019, and validation of the new MSC will begin in early 2020.

Support Supply Chain Safety

With security risks threatening supply chains around the globe, it is important for companies to support initiatives that aim to tackle and prevent supply chain risks. By obtaining C-the certification, businesses have the unique opportunity to take an active role in supporting national security while improving their own supply chain operations. 

While there are no costs associated with joining the C-TPAT program, companies often have to invest in improving their practices to meet the minimum-security requirements and effectively maintain a compliant program. However, this investment goes a long way in helping companies mitigate risk, avoid supply chain disruptions and drive greater efficiencies for cross-border transport.  

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Linda Bravo is the Corporate Customs Broker at Transplace, where Sergio Flores is the Safety and Security Coordinator. Transplace is a 3PL provider offering logistics technology and transportation management services to manufacturers, retailers, chemical and consumer packaged goods companies. Learn more at Transplace.com.

St. Lawrence Seaway

TRANSPORTATION SECRETARY CHAO COMMEMORATES ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY’S 60TH ANNIVERSARY

U.S. Transportation Secretary Elaine L. Chao marked the 60th anniversary of the St. Lawrence Seaway, the U.S.-Canadian waterway, at a Sept. 24 ceremony at the Eisenhower Lock in Massena, New York. 

“For 60 years, the St. Lawrence Seaway has been a safe and reliable gateway for global commerce, further demonstrating our nation’s strong and strategic partnership with Canada,” Chao said.

She was joined by Transport Canada Director General of Marine Policy Marc-Yves Bertin, Congresswoman Elise Stefanik (R-New York), U.S. Seaway Deputy Administrator Craig Middlebrook, Canadian Seaway President and CEO Terence Bowles and U.S. and Canadian government and transportation officials.

 Chao and Representative Stefanik also used the event to announce $6 million in funding for the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corp. to construct a new Visitors’ Center at the U.S. Eisenhower Lock. This new center will welcome the tens of thousands of people from around the world who come to watch ships transit the lock each year, and serve as a cornerstone for tourism in the North Country region of New York.

The bi-national waterway was officially opened in 1959 by Queen Elizabeth II and President Dwight D. Eisenhower. It has been proclaimed as one of the 10 most outstanding engineering achievements of the past 100 years. Since its inception, nearly 3 billion tons of cargo, valued at over $450 billion, have been transported via the Seaway