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Global Cherry Market 2019: Chile Emerged As The Largest Exporter


Global Cherry Market 2019: Chile Emerged As The Largest Exporter

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Cherries – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global cherry market revenue amounted to $12.3B in 2018, increasing by 11% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +3.8% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016, when the market value increased by 18% against the previous year. Global cherry consumption peaked in 2018, and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the amount of cherries produced worldwide stood at 3.9M tonnes, going up by 4.2% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years.

Exports 2007-2018

In 2018, the global cherry exports amounted to 558K tonnes, declining by -3.2% against the previous year. In general, cherry exports, however, continue to indicate a strong expansion. In value terms, cherry exports stood at $2.1B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, cherry exports, however, continue to indicate a strong expansion. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016, with an increase of 53% against the previous year. In that year, global cherry exports attained their peak of $2.8B. From 2017 to 2018, the growth of global cherry exports remained at a lower figure.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Chile (146K tonnes), distantly followed by the U.S. (87K tonnes), Turkey (60K tonnes), Uzbekistan (36K tonnes) and Spain (31K tonnes) represented the main exporters of cherries, together constituting 64% of total exports. Azerbaijan (24K tonnes), Greece (21K tonnes), Australia (19K tonnes), Moldova (15K tonnes), Italy (13K tonnes), Serbia (13K tonnes) and Poland (11K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Australia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest cherry markets worldwide were Chile ($760M), the U.S. ($522M) and Turkey ($166M), with a combined 70% share of global exports. These countries were followed by Spain, Uzbekistan, Australia, Italy, Greece, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Serbia and Poland, which together accounted for a further 19%.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average cherry export price amounted to $3,691 per tonne, lowering by -8% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.4%. There were significant differences in the average export prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest export price was the U.S. ($5,986 per tonne), while Poland ($910 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of export prices was attained by Moldova, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 789K tonnes of cherries were imported worldwide; increasing by 30% against the previous year. Over the period under review, cherry imports continue to indicate a strong increase. In value terms, cherry imports amounted to $3.4B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

China represented the key importing country with an import of around 324K tonnes, which resulted at 41% of total imports. Russia (92K tonnes) held a 12% share (based on tonnes) of total imports, which put it in second place, followed by China, Hong Kong SAR (11%) and Germany (5.9%). The following importers – Canada (28K tonnes), Kazakhstan (25K tonnes), South Korea (19K tonnes), Belarus (14K tonnes), Taiwan, Chinese (14K tonnes) and the U.S. (13K tonnes) – together made up 14% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2018, average annual rates of growth with regard to cherry imports into China stood at +49.3%. At the same time, Kazakhstan (+91.7%), Belarus (+29.9%), China, Hong Kong SAR (+23.6%), South Korea (+14.7%), Russia (+3.7%) and Taiwan, Chinese (+2.1%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Kazakhstan emerged as the fastest growing importer in the world, with a CAGR of +91.7% from 2007-2018. Germany and Canada experienced a relatively flat trend pattern.

By contrast, the U.S. (-1.6%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. Belarus (-1.7%), South Korea (-1.9%), Kazakhstan (-3.2%), Russia (-3.8%), China, Hong Kong SAR (-9.5%) and China (-40.6%) significantly weakened its position in terms of the global imports, while the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, China ($1.8B) constitutes the largest market for imported cherries worldwide, comprising 52% of global imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by China, Hong Kong SAR ($409M), with a 12% share of global imports. It was followed by South Korea, with a 4.6% share.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average cherry import price amounted to $4,298 per tonne, remaining relatively unchanged against the previous year. Over the last eleven year period, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.5%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016, when the average import price increased by 20% year-to-year. In that year, the average import prices for cherries attained their peak level of $4,492 per tonne. From 2017 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average import prices for cherries failed to regain its momentum.

Import prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest import price was South Korea ($8,002 per tonne), while Russia ($1,345 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of import prices was attained by Taiwan, Chinese, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform


The topic of women’s participation in international trade has been lightly touched in trade agreements. It shows up in aspirational language in a preamble, through a mention in a chapter on cross-cutting issues like labor, or in a non-binding side agreement accompanying the main text of an agreement. Canada introduced a standalone trade and gender chapter in its updated trade agreement with Chile, and is on a mission to spark a global conversation about whether and how trade and gender issues should be addressed in trade agreements.

As rallying calls of “Trade for All” and economic inclusion reverberate throughout national trade agendas, international forums, and across trade negotiation tables, here’s a closer look at trade and gender issues, how trade agreements of the past have addressed them, and how a new generation of trade and gender chapters aim to change the narrative.

In Developing Countries, Just One In Five Exporting Firms Led by Women

Despite comprising half of the global population, women generate just 37 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and run only one-third of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Women participation in the economies of developing countries is typically lower than average, with female business ownership dipping as low as three to six percent in some countries.

Women in developing countries are often concentrated in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and in export-oriented sectors like apparel, textiles and electronics manufacturing. Women-owned businesses in developing countries are less likely to export than their male counterparts, however. In a 2015 survey of 20 developing countries, the International Trade Centre found that just one in five exporting firms was led by women entrepreneurs.

Exporting is a powerful tool for women to grow their businesses by expanding into new markets. The United States is an example of how exporting can support the success of women-owned businesses. According to the International Trade Centre report, women-owned businesses in the United States that export tend to pay more, are more productive, hire more employees, and record higher than average sales than those who do not export.

U.S. women-owned businesses that export

It’s Not Just a Paperwork Issue

Trading across borders can be challenging for women, especially those who run small-scale firms in developing countries. A recent World Bank article highlights some of the key challenges women traders face – from corruption to harassment, cultural and legal barriers, and even just the amount of time they’re able to dedicate to their businesses while also expected to take care of their families. A female trader in Vietnam said it best, “In Vietnam, women have to do double the work. We manage our business and we take care of our families. We have to arrange time to do cross-border trade.”

Support for empowering women through trade is growing in international forums as of late. In December 2017, 118 members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) endorsed the Buenos Aires Declaration on Trade and Women’s Economic Empowerment. The goal is to increase women’s participation in trade and remove barriers to women’s economic empowerment. Members agreed to investigate ways to better tackle barriers and lack of access to trade financing, as well as collecting better gender-disaggregated economic data.

Member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum have also created an agenda on greater inclusion of women in the regional economy through its Policy Partnership on Women and the Economy, an initiative promoted by the United States during its host year in 2011. The forum is working to address access to capital, access to markets, support for skills development, advance women into leadership roles in business, government, community and political levels, and to ensure that women don’t get left behind in scientific, innovation, and technology sectors. Without addressing these barriers, women would be less apt to take advantage of economic opportunities created by trade agreements.

How Have Trade Agreements Addressed Trade and Gender in the Past?

While the addition of specific chapters on trade and gender in trade agreements is a relatively new approach, the inclusion of gender-related provisions in regional trade agreements is not a recent phenomenon.

According to a 2018 WTO study, the number of gender-related provisions in RTAs has steadily increased since 1957. As of 2018, 74 regional trade agreements contained at least one gender-related provision. These provisions have evolved and changed significantly over the years. The study found that most gender-related provisions were couched in “best endeavor” language and focus on cooperation on gender and gender-related issues, like labor, health and social policy.

RTAs with gender provisions


What Do New “Gender Chapters” in Trade Agreements Include?

Chile and Uruguay were the first two countries to introduce a standalone chapter on trade and gender in a bilateral agreement in 2016. This was followed by the trade and gender chapter in the updated Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement (CCFTA) signed in 2017.

The trade and gender chapter in the CCFTA contains four key components:

Acknowledgement of the importance of incorporating a gender perspective into economic and trade issues to ensure that economic growth is inclusive.

Reaffirmation of commitments to implement UN conventions against gender discrimination.

Cooperative activities and capacity building such as the promotion of access to financing and female entrepreneurship, the development of women’s networks, and greater participation by women in decision-making positions in the public and private sectors.

Establishment of a committee to oversee cooperation activities, review operations of the trade and gender chapter, report on the implementation of activities, and monitor other chapters for their effects on gender.

What Impact Might These Provisions Have?

The modernized CCFTA only recently went into force in February 2019, so it’s too soon to assess what impact the new trade and gender chapter will have for women in both countries. In a policy paper, UNCTAD called the CCFTA trade and gender chapter a “welcome step” but also said it remained a “light component” considering milestones and specific goals were not included, dispute-settlement mechanisms did not apply to the chapter, and harmonization of gender-related legislation between parties was not mandated.

Despite these perceived shortcomings, UNCTAD suggested the trend to include trade and gender chapters in trade agreements was positive: Raising the profile of trade and gender issues in the trade arena would encourage both civil society and the private sector to participate more broadly in the implementation of agreements, enhance cooperation on gender issues between parties to the agreements, and strengthen capacity-building between nations on barriers to women participating in the economy through trade.

Canada’s “Progressive” Push in CPTPP

Canada succeeded in adding trade and gender chapters to some of its recent bilateral agreements, but has faced resistance at the regional level. Although the actual words “comprehensive” and “progressive” were added in front of the TPP title, the CPTPP does not contain a trade and gender chapter. Instead, it contains non-binding language in the preamble reaffirming the importance of gender equality for all CPTPP members. It also includes provisions in the development chapter related to women and economic growth (Article 23.4). While not directly referencing women, chapters related to SMEs and cross-border digital trade should also benefit women by expanding trade in these areas.

Adding a new trade and gender chapter was included among Canada’s core negotiating objectives at the onset of NAFTA renegotiations with the United States and Mexico. This new chapter ultimately did not make the cut in the new United States-Mexico-Canada agreement (USMCA). The new USMCA agreement does contain provisions related to gender, however, including in the labor chapter and the SMEs chapter. This is an improvement over the original NAFTA agreement, which addressed gender and trade in a side accord rather than in the main text of the agreement.

Part of the argument against gender-specific provisions is that any benefits of a trade agreement should be theoretically gender-neutral. For example, provisions that help facilitate trade by small- and medium-sized enterprises should help female business owners the same. But just as there are few gender disaggregated trade data, there’s still much to be learned about how trade reforms benefit women.

More Pieces of the Puzzle

While there’s been considerable buzz around the inclusion of new trade and gender chapters in FTAs, UNCTAD experts say they are really just one piece of the puzzle. In order to yield the best results, trade and gender chapters need to be partnered with gender-related assessments of trade measures prior to the agreement to be most effective later on.

UNCTAD developed a Trade and Gender Toolbox as a framework to help countries evaluate the impact of trade reforms on women and gender inequalities before implementing them. These assessments can help countries rethink planned trade reforms or identify the need for accompanying measures to offset negative impacts on at-risk groups, like women. APEC has taken a pragmatic approach, training women to advance in traditionally male-dominated industries like energy and mining, studying successful women entrepreneurs in the ICT sector, sharing information on investing in women entrepreneurs, and even taking on specific individual goals for increasing women in private and public leadership roles. APEC is also working in critical areas such as education, sexual harassment, health, and social expectations for women as caregivers – areas a trade agreement would not be expected to address.

As more countries take up the mantle of “Trade for All”– not just Canada, but also the European Union, Chile, New Zealand and others — we will continue to see trade and gender chapters in new RTAs evolve and more initiatives to share and implement best policy practices. Yet, it remains to be seen if this “next generation language” in FTAs will make a tangible difference for the hard-working women trading around the world.

Lauren Kyger

Lauren Kyger is Associate Editor for TradeVistas. Prior to joining TradeVistas, she was a Research Associate at the Hinrich Foundation focused on international trade issues. She is a Hinrich Foundation Global Trade Leader Scholar alumna, earning her Master’s degree in Global Business Journalism from Tsinghua University in Beijing. She received her Bachelor’s degree from the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University.

This article originally appeared on Used with permission.