As the demand for electric vehicles, cell phones, and computers continues to grow, so does the demand for lithium used in lithium-ion batteries. While this soft, alkali metal known as “white gold” is abundant in certain countries, the mining process and safety issues are of concern to researchers. One such researcher is LSU Mechanical Engineering Associate Professor Ying Wang, who is using a Board of Regents grant to design a non-metal rechargeable battery that could one day replace lithium batteries on Earth and in space.
Wang and her group of LSU ME students have been working on a non-metal battery with a water-based electrolyte that is safer than an electrolyte in a lithium battery, which uses flammable and toxic organic solvents.
Wang has spoken with NASA personnel about the battery and its potential use in space.
Wang’s ammonium-ion battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing high-concentration salts that result in a significantly depressed freezing point for operation at sub-zero temperatures in space systems. The anti-freezing electrolyte can be simply prepared by dissolving ammonium salt in water. The salt concentration will be varied and optimized to achieve the lowest freezing point, maximized ionic conductivity, and electrochemical performance of the battery. The battery will be tested under extreme conditions as is required by NASA.
Cargo2ZERO puts carbon reporting, tracking and reduction within easy reach for freight forwarders of all sizes and airlines, ultimately contributing to a more sustainable future.
CO2 visibility emission data is available for all airline schedules, Routes and AWB tracking on CargoAi, which are calculated as per IATA RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1678 STANDARD. Freight Forwarders can determine the carbon emission per AWB or bulk upload AWB in order to fulfil their sustainability reporting requirements, which are presently recommended only at a national level, rather than an international level. The data provided by CargoAi is the only solution based on actual booking/ AWB routing, aircraft code & shipment weight.
At present, sustainability reporting largely remains on a voluntary basis. In recent years, a number of voluntary reporting initiatives have thus been created over time to aid organizations and in parallel, many national reporting provisions have been developed. Although there is significant progress, a single international regulatory framework is yet to be finalized, and companies with a global footprint will then face mandatory audited environmental, social and governance (ESG) reporting requirements. With data provided from Cargo2ZERO, such multinational companies will already have the ability to report on their Scope 3 emissions and be fully prepared for such audits.
CargoAi cites visibility is the first step in tackling the issue of climate action. With Cargo2ZERO, freight forwarders can take the second step to Optimize emissions for each shipment with the CO2 Efficiency Score as their benchmark. The final piece of the puzzle is emission Reduction with Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) purchase, also part of Cargo2ZERO..
Cargo2ZERO won an award for its Carbon Efficiency Score at the TIACA conference in Miami in 2022 in the start-up category. At the same conference, CargoAi announced its landmark partnership to allow freight forwarders of all sizes to purchase SAF with Neste, the leading producer of SAF. Through this partnership, small to medium-sized freight forwarders are now able to purchase SAF at a transactional level, which was previously only accessible to large freight forwarders who had significant resources to make direct contracts with airlines.
CargoAi attributes its success in winning not just the Sustainability Award in 2022, but also the Air Cargo News Innovation Award, thanks to its partnership with CargoTech, allowing for continued growth and innovation.
Freight forwarders can already go ahead to utilize the functions of Cargo2ZERO in their standard booking flow on CargoMART or provide list of AWBs to CargoAi’s team, and airlines can enquire with CargoAi about white-labelling this solution to meet their own sustainable targets.
Considering the imminent exponential growth of the hydropower industry, it is essential that an arsenal of strategies is implemented in order to raise the sustainability standards within hydropower facilities – driving the industry towards a net zero future. Of these strategies, protective coatings and repair composites have an important part to play. By intrinsically improving the integrity of key hydropower assets, these products help to accelerate the drive towards more sustainable hydropower facilities and, therefore, the decarbonization of the sector.
The Carbon Footprint of Hydropower While the environmental benefits of hydropower far outweigh fossil fuel alternatives, like most alternative energy sources, hydropower is not without its carbon footprint. Indeed, all energy sources, even renewables, produce carbon emissions in their lifecycle, due to the emissions caused by their manufacture, construction and operation. While there are some hydropower facilities, such as Iceland’s Landsvirkjun, which have pledged to become carbon neutral, on average, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that hydropower has a median greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of 24 gCO₂-eq/kWh. This is the grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated allocated over its life-cycle. By comparison, the median figure for coal is 820 gCO₂-eq/kWh.
Average life-cycle CO2 equivalent emissions (source: IPCC) Hydropower Capacity Needs to Double by 2050 The need to mitigate this carbon footprint somewhat ratchets up when considering the huge role hydropower is set to play in supporting a net zero emissions by 2050 pathway (in line with The Paris Agreement). In the International Energy Association’s (IEA) ‘Net Zero by 2050’ Roadmap (revised version 2021), the required growth of hydropower is colossal. The Roadmap states that hydropower capacity needs to ‘double by 2050’, positioning the industry as ‘[…] the third-largest energy source in the electricity mix by 2050.’
Image source:International Energy Association’s (IEA) ‘Net Zero by 2050’ Roadmap A Call to Modernize Aging Plants While it is essential that hydropower capacity ‘doubles’ by 2050, one way of increasing this capacity is by, what the IEA describes as ‘modernizing aging plants’. In fact, their Roadmap details how between now and 2030, USD 127 billion – or almost one-quarter of global hydropower investment – will be spent on modernizing aging plants. In regards to these ‘aging plants’, according to the IEA, in North America, the average hydropower plant is nearly 50 years old and in Europe, the average is 45 years old. The report goes on to say how: ‘These aging fleets – which have provided affordable and reliable renewable electricity on demand for decades – are in need of modernization to ensure they can contribute to electricity security in a sustainable manner for decades to come.’
Extend Lifespan of Hydropower Assets with Industrial Coatings and Composites Industrial protective coatings and epoxy repair composites play a fundamental role in ‘modernizing aging plants’, which in turn, supports the decarbonization of the hydropower industry. By investing in this polymeric technology, aged assets can be repaired, protected and improved for the long term. This process successfully helps to mitigate the carbon footprint of hydropower facilities as it breathes new life into assets that would otherwise be decommissioned, replaced or sent to landfill.
Companies such as Belzona (established in 1952) have a portfolio of protective coatings and repair composites that have been used to improve the efficiency and performance of hydropower assets for decades. Based on the level of erosion resistance required, the epoxy paste, Belzona 1111 (Super Metal) and composite repair polymer, Belzona 1311 (Ceramic R-Metal), can be specified for rebuilding damage and restoring efficiency in areas such as turbines, wicket gates and turbine casings.
The efficiency-improving capabilities of these systems can be demonstrably identified in the two-part epoxy coating, Belzona 1341 (Supermetalglide). With this high-performance coating, the efficiency of fluid-handling equipment, such as pumps, can be increased by up to 7% on new equipment and up to 20% on refurbished equipment.
Roughness comparison between polished stainless steel and Belzona 1341 (Supermetalglide). Surface inspection: Leeds University The two-part polyurethane resin, Belzona 2141 (ACR-Fluid Elastomer), can be deployed in areas that are particularly subjected to high levels of cavitation, such as Kaplan turbine blades. This system offers an outstanding level of protection against cavitation at ultra-high velocities (up to 115 knots with no damage).
Belzona’srange of polymeric systems can be specified in the following application areas, amongst others: turbines, penstock gates, generators, spiral casings, draft tubes, transformers, powerhouses, control valves, dams, stilling basins and spillways. Mitigating Hydropower’s Carbon Footprint
By investing in industrial protective coatings and epoxy repair composites, the lifespan of hydropower assets can be considerably prolonged. In turn, this supports more sustainable operations within hydropower facilities and, therefore, helps to mitigate the carbon footprint of the industry.