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Asia’s Beeswax Market Is Estimated at $206M in 2018, an Increase of 3.4%

beeswax

Asia’s Beeswax Market Is Estimated at $206M in 2018, an Increase of 3.4%

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Asia – Beeswax – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the beeswax market in Asia amounted to $206M in 2018, increasing by 3.4% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The total market indicated a moderate increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +0.7% over the last eleven years.

Consumption By Country in Asia

The country with the largest volume of beeswax consumption was India (26K tonnes), accounting for 64% of total consumption. Moreover, beeswax consumption in India exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest consumer, Turkey (4.9K tonnes), fivefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by South Korea (3.7K tonnes), with a 9.1% share.

In India, beeswax consumption expanded at an average annual rate of +2.6% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Turkey (+1.9% per year) and South Korea (-1.1% per year).

In value terms, India ($127M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Turkey ($42M). It was followed by South Korea.

The countries with the highest levels of beeswax per capita consumption in 2018 were South Korea (73 kg per 1000 persons), Turkey (59 kg per 1000 persons) and Malaysia (39 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of beeswax per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Japan, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in Asia

Driven by increasing demand for beeswax in Asia, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +0.2% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 42K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in Asia

In 2018, approx. 50K tonnes of beeswax were produced in Asia; remaining stable against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 when production volume increased by 5.6% against the previous year. Over the period under review, beeswax production reached its peak figure volume in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, beeswax production stood at $292M in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, beeswax production continues to indicate prominent growth. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 25% against the previous year. Over the period under review, beeswax production attained its peak figure level at $392M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country in Asia

India (24K tonnes) remains the largest beeswax producing country in Asia, comprising approx. 49% of total production. Moreover, beeswax production in India exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest producer, China (11K tonnes), twofold. Turkey (4.5K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total production with a 9% share.

In India, beeswax production increased at an average annual rate of +2.0% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: China (+0.5% per year) and Turkey (+1.4% per year).

Exports in Asia

The exports totaled 14K tonnes in 2018, surging by 8.1% against the previous year. The total exports indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +6.7% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beeswax exports increased by +9.1% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 when exports increased by 26% year-to-year. The volume of exports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, beeswax exports amounted to $79M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, beeswax exports continue to indicate a resilient expansion. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 34% y-o-y. The level of exports peaked at $80M in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

In 2018, China (9.7K tonnes) represented the major exporter of beeswax, committing 69% of total exports. It was distantly followed by Malaysia (1,970 tonnes) and Viet Nam (1,494 tonnes), together committing a 25% share of total exports. India (339 tonnes) held a little share of total exports.

Exports from China increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Viet Nam (+19.6%), India (+15.2%) and Malaysia (+8.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Viet Nam emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in Asia, with a CAGR of +19.6% from 2007-2018. China (+30 p.p.), Viet Nam (+9.2 p.p.), Malaysia (+8.5 p.p.) and India (+1.9 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the total exports, while the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, China ($61M) remains the largest beeswax supplier in Asia, comprising 77% of total beeswax exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Viet Nam ($12M), with a 15% share of total exports. It was followed by India, with a 2% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value in China stood at +10.9%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Viet Nam (+24.8% per year) and India (+15.5% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The beeswax export price in Asia stood at $5,595 per tonne in 2018, going up by 1.8% against the previous year. The export price indicated a buoyant increase from 2007 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +4.4% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, beeswax export price decreased by -5.3% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2012 when the export price increased by 20% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the export prices for beeswax reached their maximum at $5,910 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, export prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Viet Nam ($7,731 per tonne), while Malaysia ($670 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in Asia

In 2018, approx. 5.5K tonnes of beeswax were imported in Asia; stabilizing at the previous year. Overall, beeswax imports continue to indicate remarkable growth. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when imports increased by 40% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

In value terms, beeswax imports totaled $28M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, beeswax imports continue to indicate a prominent increase. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 when imports increased by 47% year-to-year. Over the period under review, beeswax imports reached their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

India represented the major importing country with an import of around 2.2K tonnes, which resulted at 40% of total imports. Japan (889 tonnes) took the second position in the ranking, followed by China (557 tonnes), Turkey (405 tonnes) and South Korea (357 tonnes). All these countries together took approx. 40% share of total imports. Pakistan (186 tonnes), Thailand (181 tonnes) and Taiwan, Chinese (93 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

India was also the fastest-growing in terms of the beeswax imports, with a CAGR of +23.1% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, China (+20.6%), Pakistan (+14.2%), Turkey (+9.8%), Thailand (+5.9%) and Taiwan, Chinese (+1.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Japan experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, South Korea (-2.4%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. India (+36 p.p.), China (+8.9 p.p.), Turkey (+4.7 p.p.), Pakistan (+2.6 p.p.), Japan (+1.6 p.p.) and Thailand (+1.5 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the total imports, while South Korea saw its share reduced by -2% from 2007 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest beeswax importing markets in Asia were Japan ($8.2M), China ($5.5M) and South Korea ($2.9M), with a combined 60% share of total imports.

China recorded the highest growth rate of imports, among the main importing countries over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The beeswax import price in Asia stood at $5,033 per tonne in 2018, remaining stable against the previous year. Over the last eleven years, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.5%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 when the import price increased by 35% y-o-y. In that year, the import prices for beeswax attained their peak level of $5,431 per tonne. From 2015 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for beeswax remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was China ($9,919 per tonne), while India ($1,098 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by South Korea, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

commerce

COMMERCE ISSUES PRELIMINARY DETERMINATIONS IN PROBES OF DRIED TART CHERRY IMPORTS FROM TURKEY

The U.S. Department of Commerce on Sept. 23 announced the affirmative preliminary determinations in the antidumping duty (AD) and countervailing duty (CVD) investigations of imports of dried tart cherries from Turkey, finding that exporters sold dried tart cherries at less than fair value at rates ranging from 541.29 to 648.35 percent and received countervailable subsidies at a rate of 204.93 percent.

Commerce will instruct U.S. Customs and Border Protection to collect cash deposits from importers of dried tart cherries from Turkey based on these preliminary rates.

Investigations were initiated based on petitions filed by the Dried Tart Cherry Trade Committee, whose members include Cherry Central Cooperative (Traverse City, Michigan), Graceland Fruit, Inc. (Frankfort, Michigan), Payson Fruit Growers Coop (Payson, Utah), Shoreline Fruit, LLC (Traverse City, Michigan) and Smeltzer Orchard Co. (Frankfort, Michigan). In 2018, imports of dried tart cherries from Turkey were valued at an estimated $1.2 million.

Commerce is scheduled to announce its final AD and CVD determinations on or about Dec. 5. If affirmative final determinations are made, the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) will be scheduled to make its final injury determinations on or about Jan. 21, 2020. Only if both Commerce and the ITC make affirmative final injury determinations will AD and CVD orders be issued. Any negative final determinations end the investigations with no orders issued.

U.S. Strengthens Sanctions Targeting the Government of Venezuela

On August 5, 2019, the Trump Administration intensified pressure on the administration of Nicolás Maduro by imposing broad economic sanctions against the Government of Venezuela, a move that could escalate existing tensions with Venezuela’s supporters, Russia and China.  In a late-night Executive Order, President Trump announced that all property, and interests in property, of the Government of Venezuela, including its agencies, instrumentalities, and any entity owned or controlled by the foregoing, that are within the jurisdiction of the United States would be blocked.

The Order further suspended entry into the United States of sanctioned persons absent a determination from the Secretary of State. The Order also authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to impose additional secondary sanctions on non-U.S. persons who materially support or provide goods or services to the Government of Venezuela.

Background

In January 2019, after months of economic turmoil and political unrest under Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro, the United States formally recognized Juan Guaidó, the leader of the Venezuelan National Assembly, as the country’s legitimate head of state.  More than fifty nations followed suit, asserting that President Maduro’s 2017 reelection was illegitimate and that Guaidó was the rightful interim president under the Venezuelan constitution.

The Trump Administration followed its recognition of Mr. Guaidó as interim president with sweeping sanctions on the Venezuelan government. The measures included designating Venezuela’s state-run oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (“PdVSA”), as a Specially Designated National (“SDN”), thereby prohibiting U.S. persons from engaging in transactions with PdVSA, as well as transactions by non-U.S. persons conducted in U.S. dollars, unless otherwise authorized by the U.S. Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”).  (We previously summarized the PdVSA SDN designation here.)

Despite the increasing U.S. pressure, President Maduro has refused to cede power.  He retains the support of the Venezuelan military, and Russia, China, Iran, Cuba, and Turkey have continued their economic and diplomatic relationships with the regime.

Sanctions Overview

Through this new Executive Order, the Trump Administration has ratcheted up its efforts against the Maduro regime, asserting that further measures are necessary to combat “human rights abuses,” “interference with freedom of expression,” and “ongoing attempts to undermine Interim President Juan Guaidó and the Venezuelan National Assembly’s exercise of legitimate authority in Venezuela.”

However, contrary to initial press reports, the action does not create a comprehensive embargo against Venezuela (on the model of the U.S. sanctions against Iran) that would prevent U.S. persons from engaging in almost all transactions. Instead, the new measures focus on the Venezuelan government by blocking all property and interests in property of the government that are currently in the United States, will be brought into the United States, or come into the possession or control of a U.S. person. There is, however, an exception for humanitarian goods, such as food, clothing, and medicine.  The Order applies regardless of contracts entered into, or licenses or permits granted, prior to the Order.

Further, the Order could have a broad impact outside of the United States by authorizing secondary sanctions against any party determined by OFAC to “have materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services to or in support of” the Government of Venezuela.  U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton warned the day after the Order, “We are sending a signal to third parties that want to do business with the Maduro regime: proceed with extreme caution.  There is no need to risk your business interests with the United States for the purposes of profiting from a corrupt and dying regime.”

In conjunction with the Order, OFAC also revised twelve existing general licenses (“GLs”) and issued thirteen new GLs.  Notably, GL 28 authorizes through 12:01 a.m. on September 4, 2019, transactions necessary to wind-down contracts with the Government of Venezuela.  GL 31 also authorizes transactions with the Venezuelan National Assembly and the shadow government of Interim President Juan Guaidó, underscoring that the target of the action is the administration of Nicolás Maduro.

The GLs and related guidance make clear that the people of Venezuela are not the target of the sanctions.  Specifically, OFAC released a document entitled “Guidance Related to the Provision of Humanitarian Assistance and Support to the Venezuelan People,” which emphasized that “humanitarian assistance and activities to promote democracy are not the target of U.S. sanctions and are generally excepted from sanctions . . . ”  OFAC simultaneously issued four new Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).  FAQ 680 stresses that “U.S. persons are not prohibited from engaging in transactions involving the country or people of Venezuela, provided blocked persons or any conduct prohibited by any other Executive order imposing sanctions measures related to the situation in Venezuela, are not involved.”

OFAC also issued a number of GLs to authorize humanitarian transactions and transactions necessary for communications involving Venezuela, including new GLs 24 (telecommunications and common carriers), 25 (Internet communications), 26(medical services), and 29 (broadly authorizing certain non-governmental organizations).

Further, U.S. persons in Venezuela are not targeted by the sanctions.  Section 6(d) of the Order exempts from the definition of Government of Venezuela “any United States citizen, any permanent resident alien of the United States, any alien lawfully admitted to the United States, or any alien holding a valid United States visa.”  Further, GL 32authorizes U.S. persons resident in Venezuela to engage in ordinary and necessary personal “maintenance” transactions, including “payment of housing expenses, acquisition of goods or services for personal use, payment of taxes or fees, and purchase or receipt of permits, licenses, or public utility services.”

Such measures targeting an entire government have rarely been used by the United States, and there are many questions about how the restrictions and related authorizations will be interpreted and applied.  As Bolton observed, “This is the first time in 30 years that [the U.S. is] imposing an asset freeze against a government in this hemisphere.”

Effect of the Sanctions

There has been some confusion in the media over the breadth of the measures.  Some reports have mischaracterized the Order as a “total embargo;” however, the scope of the Order is limited to property, and interests in property, of the Venezuelan government, its agencies, instrumentalities, and entities owned or controlled by these.  Because many major Venezuelan government entities have already been designated as SDNs in earlier actions, including PdVSA and the Central Bank of Venezuela, the measures appear to be only an incremental expansion of the existing sanctions program.

More significantly, the Order creates a secondary sanctions regime for OFAC to designate non-U.S. parties who continue to do business with the Maduro government.  While these secondary sanctions are most likely to target Cuban, Russian, and Chinese entities that continue to provide aid to the ailing regime, all non-U.S. persons engaging in transactions in the country should carefully assess whether those transactions could benefit the government.  In particular, companies trading with Venezuela should conduct due diligence sufficient to ensure that their counterparties are not owned fifty percent or more by the Government of Venezuela, or are not otherwise controlled by the government.

In addition, from a practical standpoint, although the sanctions only apply to Government of Venezuelan and related entities, the measures may cause financial institutions, insurers, freight forwarders and other companies – who often apply a heighted level of compliance going beyond the minimum required by OFAC – to avoid dealing with Venezuelan entities altogether.

The measures against Venezuela could also escalate existing tensions with Russia and China if the sanctions further restrict the countries’ access to Venezuelan oil.  Russia and China, which have continued to back the Maduro regime, currently import Venezuelan oil as part of a debt relief program.  China is slated to continue receiving oil from Venezuela until 2021, so it stands to suffer substantial losses if it is unable to continue the shipments.  This uncertainty comes in the midst of deteriorating relations between the United States and China due to the ongoing trade war, relations which suffered another blow this week when the Trump Administration labeled China a “currency manipulator.”

Margarine Market in the Middle East – Trends, Analysis and Forecast

IndexBox has just published a new report, the Middle East – Margarine And Shortening – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the margarine and shortening market in Middle East amounted to $1.1B in 2017, growing by 11% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +2.8% from 2007 to 2017; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011, with an increase of 37% y-o-y. In that year, the margarine and shortening market attained its peak level of $1.4B. From 2012 to 2017, the growth of the margarine and shortening market remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Production in the Middle East

In 2017, approx. 837K tonnes of margarine and shortening were produced in Middle East; growing by 2.4% against the previous year. The margarine and shortening production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Exports in the Middle East

In 2017, exports of margarine and shortening in Middle East amounted to 165K tonnes, coming down by -22.4% against the previous year. Overall, the total exports indicated a modest expansion over the last decade, increasing at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2007 to 2017. In value terms, margarine and shortening exports stood at $183M (IndexBox estimates) in 2017.

Exports by Country

Turkey prevails in margarine and shortening exports structure, recording 141K tonnes, which was approx. 85% of total exports in 2017. It was distantly followed by Oman (13K tonnes), achieving 7.6% share of total exports. The United Arab Emirates (7.1K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

Exports from Turkey increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% from 2007 to 2017. At the same time, Oman (+22.5%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Oman emerged as the fastest growing exporter in Middle East, with a CAGR of +22.5% from 2007-2017. By contrast, the United Arab Emirates (-5.4%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2017, the share of the United Arab Emirates increased by 3.1% percentage points, while Oman (-6.6%) and Turkey (-17.6%) saw their share reduced.

In value terms, Turkey ($149M) remains the largest margarine and shortening supplier in Middle East, comprising 82% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Oman ($15M), with a 8.1% share of global exports.

Export Prices by Country

The margarine and shortening export price in Middle East stood at $1.1 per kg in 2017, increasing by 7.4% against the previous year. The the margarine and shortening export price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Average export prices varied somewhat amongst the major exporting countries. In 2017, the country with the highest export price was the United Arab Emirates ($1.5 per kg), while Turkey ($1.1 per kg) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2017, the most notable rate of growth in terms of export prices was attained by the United Arab Emirates (+3.4% per year), while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the export price figures.

Imports in the Middle East

In 2017, the amount of margarine and shortening imported in Middle East totaled 353K tonnes, waning by -5.1% against the previous year. The total imports indicated a remarkable increase from 2007 to 2017: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.9% over the last decade. In value terms, margarine and shortening imports totaled $411M (IndexBox estimates) in 2017.

Imports by Country

In 2017, Iraq (99K tonnes), distantly followed by Saudi Arabia (64K tonnes), Syrian Arab Republic (41K tonnes), Turkey (38K tonnes), Iran (32K tonnes), the United Arab Emirates (21K tonnes) and Lebanon (16K tonnes) were the key importers of margarine and shortening, together comprising 88% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2017, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Lebanon (+19.4% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2017, the margarine and shortening import price in Middle East amounted to $1.2 per kg, jumping by 4.7% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2017, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.3%.

Average import prices varied somewhat amongst the major importing countries. In 2017, major importing countries recorded the following import prices: in Turkey ($1.4 per kg) and the United Arab Emirates ($1.4 per kg), while Iraq ($965 per tonne) and Syrian Arab Republic ($1 per kg) were amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2017, the most notable rate of growth in terms of import prices was attained by the United Arab Emirates (+4.0% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

Grace Buys Out Turkey Construction Products JV Partner

Columbia, MD – Construction engineering giant W. R. Grace & Co. has entered into definitive agreements to acquire the remaining 50 percent equity interest in the joint venture it formed in 1996 with STFA Yatırım Holding A.S., one of Turkey’s most established and reputable construction industry conglomerates.

With the agreement, STFA will sell its 50 percent stake in Grace Yapı Kimyasalları to Construction Products Dubai, a Grace subsidiary.

The business, located in Istanbul, Turkey, provides cement additives, concrete admixtures, and building envelope products in Turkey and the surrounding region.

The transaction is pending Turkish regulatory approval and is expected to close by the end of the year. Terms were not disclosed.

Following the transaction, the business will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Grace and operate within its Grace Construction Products business segment.

The business will continue to provide specialty construction chemicals products to customers in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Iraq.

Grace is a global supplier of catalysts, engineered and packaging materials, and specialty construction chemicals and building materials.

The company’s three industry-leading business segment – Grace Catalysts Technologies, Grace Materials Technologies, and Grace Construction Products – provide innovative products, technologies, and services to customers in over 150 countries around the world.

Grace employs approximately 6,500 people in over 40 countries and had 2013 net sales of $3.1 billion.

12/01/2014

 

TRACE Expands into Ghana, Hungary and Turkey

Annapolis, MD – TRACE International, the global anti-bribery association, has expanded its worldwide presence with new partnerships announced in Ghana, Hungary, and Turkey.

The latest organizations to partner with TRACE are CommerceGhana, an organization committed to facilitating investment in Ghana; EuCham CEE, a private, non-governmental institution working to enhance the business environment for companies operating in Europe; and the Ethics and Reputation Society, or TEID, a nonprofit organization dedicated to building a robust and ethical business culture in Turkey.

In the past 12 months, TRACE’s global footprint has expanded significantly, with a new on-the-ground presence in Dubai, Manila and New Delhi and new partnerships established with American Chambers of Commerce in Zambia and Libya and the Makati Business Club in the Philippines.

TRACE International is a non-profit membership association that pools resources to provide practical and cost-effective anti-bribery compliance solutions for multinational companies and their commercial intermediaries.

Founded in 2001, the association is one of the world’s leading non-profit organizations dedicated to anti-bribery compliance with hundreds of corporate members and thousands of intermediary members around the world.

06/23/2014