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7 Supply Chain Lessons from Steve Jobs

steve jobs

7 Supply Chain Lessons from Steve Jobs

From working in the backyard to transforming the world, Steve Jobs has changed the perception of technology. A self-made businessman with an extraordinary vision shook the world with innovative products and designs.

But being a leading personality is not easy. Jobs had his ups and downs in keeping his business at the top. I have done my fair share of research on the management styles of Steve Jobs and analyzed his actions and key messaging to provide value to the end-customers.

Today, the digital world comprises different marketing channels and tactics like email marketing, social media marketing, affiliate marketing, pay-per-click, and more. But Jobs started his product line way before these channels picked up the pace.

So what’s the special ingredient in Apple’s success? The answer lies in its supply chain process. Here’s what Steve Jobs taught us.

1. Customer is the Priority

With an aim to build extremely worthwhile products according to the customer’s wants, Jobs changed the narrative of business operations. The first and foremost supply chain lesson from Steve Jobs is to put customers as the priority and cost-cutting as secondary.

Creating a great product doesn’t suffice in itself. Improving and nurturing a great product is a virtuous cycle. Jobs believed the same. Accordingly, he suggested building a product that provides value to its customers. Furthermore, he focused on product differentiation and seamless deliverability to ensure customer satisfaction.

From 1983 to 1993, Jobs wasn’t a part of Apple due to several hardships. The company reversed the strategy to profit maximization as the priority. As a result, it observed great losses.

Jobs didn’t suggest this mantra for just the sake of sharing it. It is tried and tested to the best of his knowledge. Therefore, if you are running a supply chain business, make customers your top priority.

You can provide value to your customers in one way or another. For instance, you may send real-time email updates to your customers about their product’s location through email marketing software or affordable autoresponders.

In the end, you have to find a way to engage your customers and provide them with a seamless experience.

2. Don’t Set Achievable Targets

Jobs believed in pushing people to achieve to the best of their ability. In other words, achieving the impossible. When Jobs was involved in Pixar, he took inspiration from the movie ‘Star Trek’. The movie was based on aliens who created an alternate reality with their mental force.

One such incident was the creation of a game called ‘Breakout’. Jobs encouraged Steve Wozniak to create the game in four days instead of four months. Ultimately, Wozniak achieved the impossible.

As infuriating it might be, Jobs had a vision of doing extraordinary things.

Identifying and rectifying the product’s shortcomings, as impossible it may seem, is the next supply chain lesson. One such instance is the Macintosh operating system.

An engineer named Larry Kenyon was working on the issue of longer boot-up time. He gave multiple reasons to Jobs for why it is impossible to cut-short the time. Jobs asked, is it possible to reduce mere10 seconds? Kenyon agreed.

Jobs went on to explain that if he would cut 10 seconds, it would save 300 million hours a year and that’s equal to 100 lifetimes per year. As a result, the booting time was reduced by 28 seconds.

Another example can be the very famous iPhone’s Gorilla Glass.

Jobs wanted iPhones to have a scratch-proof glass. Plastic won’t make the cut. Jobs directly went to meet the CEO of Corning, Wendell Weeks. Corning had the capability to manufacture gorilla glass. But Jobs wanted the glass in bulk within six months which sounded impossible to Weeks.

Weeks was astonished but still called up the Corning Facility’s managers. Weeks told them to stop making LCD displays and start making Gorilla glass. Results? They did it in under six months.

Are you ready to double your targets?

3. Set Streamlined Processes

Your supply chain process must not include complex tasks and processes. Whether it’s about inventory, warehouse, logistics, or more, each stage should have defined and streamlined processes.

The essential part is establishing links to deliver a seamless experience. Jobs in his own way made his supply chain process easy by integrating the hardware, the software, and the peripheral devices.

He ensured the best user experience by taking end-to-end responsibility starting from the microprocessor’s performance to buying the devices from the Apple Store. Therefore, he created a whole Apple ecosystem wherein you can connect your iPod to a Mac that has an iTunes software for syncing all the Apple devices.

In short, declutter your supply chain processes and create a seamless strategy.

4. Focus on Necessity and Act Accordingly

When Jobs joined back Apple in 1997, he made everyone stop and focus on the necessities. In a grid of two-by-two, he wrote: “consumer” in the first section and “Pro” in the next section. He labeled the first row as “Desktop” and the second as “Portable”.

He gave a target to his entire team. They had to create four extraordinary products, aiming for one product per quadrant. All the other products must be stopped.

Your supply chain strategy must entail only the necessary touchpoints. Deciding what needs to be eliminated is as necessary is deciding what to incorporate.

His strategy was to list down the 10 most essential things to prioritize. Later, he struck the 7 and focused on the first three.

5. Understand Your Product

The next lesson is somewhat derived from the above-mentioned lesson, that is, eliminating complexity. Jobs focused on product simplification. But before doing that he analyzed the shortcomings of his product. Understanding your products and processes is an essential step to a successful supply chain strategy.

Seeing the product as a manufacturer or designer will never work as a long-term strategy. Rather, you must see your products and processes as an end-user.

As Apple declared, “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”, it preached what it said. Jobs appreciated a simplistic style and wanted to incorporate the same in his products and strategies.

According to Jobs, making simple products is more difficult than making a complex one. Moreover, it takes a lot to understand the challenges in order to come up with elegant solutions.

Jobs along with Apple’s industrial designer, Jony Ive, began exploring Apple’s products. When they were discussing the design of the iPod’s interface, Job wanted a clutter-free design. He straightaway wanted to be able to reach anywhere in three clicks in iPod.

For instance, he removed the screen where the users were asked to search a song by name, artist, or album. The results would be displayed according to keywords input. Next, he got rid of the on/off button. The device was smart enough to power down when not in use or light up when in use.

6. Don’t Be Afraid to Make Changes

One thing that should stick with you is predicting the demand for your product. Demand forecasting is quite a common term in the supply chain industry. The question is: how many of you comply and make a radical change?

Steve Jobs did the same with the iPod. Innovation never remains constant. Someone can make better strategies and outsmart you. Therefore, you must take a leap where needed be.

People who were using PCs had to download or swap music and burn their CDs themselves. The slot in iMac’s drive was incapable of burning CDs.

What was a quick solution? Jobs transformed the entire music industry. He created a one-stop solution by combining iTunes, iTunes Store, and iPod. Now, the users could share, buy, play, or manage their music in any of the other devices.

After Jobs relished the success of the iPod, he realized that the product will meet its end soon. He knew that the smartphone makers will add built-in music players to their devices. That is why he started the manufacturing of iPhones.

Soon after his death in 2011, iPods came to an end too in 2014.

7. Envision the Future

Apple’s retail stores are all over the world. Therefore, the last lesson is related to the demand forecast. You may run a local or global business, but tracking your operational details is essential to your business.

What was Apple’s mantra? Apple decreased its average inventory (excluding emergency stocks) which resulted in increased inventory turnover. Meaning, Apple didn’t keep more stocks than required since it can become obsolete.

Apple’s products have a longer life cycle and its sale is not dependent on seasonal factors. However, Jobs never stayed behind in leveraging the seasonal sales season. Since there is high demand during this season, therefore, Jobs shipped and stocked its products to its warehouses via air. This is because shipping products via sea require more lead time than air freight.

Wrapping-up

Apple’s supply chain process was not the best in its initial phases. However, it evolved gradually with the experiences and learnings. Steve Jobs revolutionized and transformed the digital world. His lessons shall always be remembered and valued.

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This guest post is contributed by Kurt Walker who is a blogger and college paper writer. In the course of his studies he developed an interest in innovative technology and likes to keep business owners informed about the latest technology to use to transform their operations. He writes for companies such as Edu BirdieXpertWriters and uk.bestessays.com on various academic and business topics.

Huawei

U.S. Adds 38 New Huawei Affiliates to Entity List While Again Expanding Foreign-Produced Direct Product Rule

The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) has announced that it is further restricting access by Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and its designated non-U.S. affiliates (“Huawei”) to U.S.-produced technology and software. BIS first added Huawei to its Entity List on May 15, 2019 and has continued to impose additional export restrictions on Huawei under the U.S. Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”). Most recently, BIS published a Federal Register notice to implement the following enhancements. Although BIS published this Federal Register notice on August 20, 2020, the following rule changes took effect retroactively as of August 17, 2020:

Addition of Thirty-Eight New Huawei Affiliates to the Entity List. In its announcement, BIS added thirty-eight (38) additional Huawei affiliates to the Entity List. This action now brings the total number of Entity List-designated Huawei affiliates to one hundred and fifty-two (152). The EAR generally prohibits anyone, anywhere in the world from supplying products, software or technology that is “subject to the EAR” to these Huawei affiliates without a BIS license.

Expiration of Huawei Temporary General License. BIS had previously issued (and then, on multiple occasions, extended) a Temporary General License which permitted certain transactions with Huawei Entity List affiliates in order to support existing networks, equipment and handsets that were in existence prior to Huawei’s initial Entity List designation on May 16, 2019. In its Federal Register notice, BIS announced that it would be allowing the Temporary General License to expire. As a result, pursuant to the expiration date set in its most recent renewal notice, the Huawei Temporary General License expired effective August 13, 2020.

Anyone who previously utilized the Temporary General License was required to obtain certain compliance certifications in connection with transactions conducted pursuant to the Temporary General License and the EAR will require those persons to retain those certifications in accordance with the EAR’s recordkeeping requirements.

Permanent Authorization for Cybersecurity Research and Vulnerability Disclosures to Huawei Entity List Companies. The Temporary General License also contained a provision which authorized the disclosure of certain information to Huawei Entity List companies in order to assist with maintaining the integrity and reliability of existing data networks. After allowing the remainder of the Temporary General License to expire, BIS permanently codified this narrow exception into the EAR in order to promote cybersecurity.

Expansion of the Huawei Foreign-Produced Direct Product Rule. In May 2020, BIS amended the EAR’s foreign-produced direct product (FPDP) rules to designate the following items as “subject to the EAR”: (i) foreign-produced items produced or developed by a Huawei Entity List affiliate through the use of technology or software controlled under certain Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs), and (ii) foreign-produced items that are produced using equipment which is the direct product of U.S. origin software or technology controlled under certain ECCNs and also produced according to software or technology specifications produced or developed by a Huawei Entity List affiliate. BIS has now significantly expanded this rule.

As amended, the new Huawei FPDP rule now completely disregards whether foreign-produced items produced by a 3rd party are produced according to Huawei specifications and instead extends the Huawei FPDP rule’s coverage to all foreign-produced items resulting from the specified software, technology or production equipment which are intended for incorporation into or for use in the “production” or “development” of any “part”, “component”, or “equipment” to be produced, purchased or ordered by a Huawei Entity List company or otherwise included in any transaction featuring a Huawei Entity List company as a “purchaser”, “intermediate consignee”, “ultimate consignee” or “end-user” (terms in quotation marks in the previous sentence are defined terms under the EAR).

As a result of these amendments, a much broader range of foreign-produced items are now “subject to the EAR” and therefore prohibited for export, reexport or in-country transfer to any Huawei Entity List company without an appropriate BIS license.  Although BIS will normally review such license applications on a “presumption of denial” standard, these amendments did create an exception which states that BIS will evaluate license applications involving Huawei Entity List companies on a “case-by-case” basis when they involve foreign-produced telecommunications systems, equipment and devices below the 5G level.

The amendment did feature a savings clause, which allowed the continuance of certain qualifying transactions which were initiated prior to August 17, 2020.

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Grant Leach is an Omaha-based partner with the law firm Husch Blackwell LLP focusing on international trade, export controls, trade sanctions and anti-corruption compliance.

Cortney O’Toole Morgan is a Washington D.C.-based partner with the law firm Husch Blackwell LLP. She leads the firm’s International Trade & Supply Chain group.

Camron Greer is an Assistant Trade Analyst in Husch Blackwell LLP’s Washington D.C. office.

silk road

CHINA IS GIVING ANCIENT SILK ROAD TRADE ROUTES A DIGITAL MAKEOVER

The New Silk Road is Paved by Bits and Bytes

In 2015, China launched its Digital Silk Road (DSR) initiative. The DSR is the digital backbone for China’s modern reconstruction of the ancient silk trade routes. Against the backdrop of heightened U.S.-China tensions and the COVID-19 pandemic, the DSR is how China is creating new trade ecosystems and deepening its trade relations across the developing world.

The pandemic has propelled us all faster toward a digital world as we adapt to distance learning, working from home, telehealth, and online shopping, putting technology at the center of economic life.

The pandemic has also shone a spotlight on reliance on China for imports of critical products like personal protective equipment and pharmaceuticals.

These dynamics are fueling China to accelerate its global tech drive – embodied by the DSR – as well the backlash against it, primarily led by the United States. We are entering a “tech cold war” with China’s Digital Silk Road at the epicenter.

The DSR is neither well defined nor understood, but it will re-shape the global economy. Here’s what you need to know.

DSR quote

What the Digital Silk Road and McDonald’s Have in Common

Paul Triolo, a leading U.S.-based China tech analyst, compares the structure of the DSR to the groundbreaking business model of McDonald’s: In a word — it’s about franchising. China’s publicly traded tech giants establish technological outposts or “franchises” that receive political, financial, and branding benefits under the DSR marketing umbrella from the state, which China’s competitors claim tilts the playing field against other international players.

The Digital Heart of China’s Belt and Road

China’s Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) was announced by President Xi Jinping in 2013. It’s an ambitious plan to rebuild the land (belt) and maritime (road) trade routes of the ancient silk trade routes, extending throughout the developing world from central Asia to the Middle East, and to Latin America and the Caribbean. To date, 137 countries have signed onto the program. All in, BRI is estimated to be a trillion-dollar infrastructure build, but the BRI is already showing signs of shifting global trade flows.

As the signature foreign policy of President Xi, activities to advance the BRI are a top priority across Chinese government and business sector. The Digital Silk Road is a key part of the BRI vision. So far, 30 countries have MOUs with China for DSR projects – spanning from Laos up to Kazakhstan, across to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE and stretching to Peru and the Dominican Republic.

The DSR encompasses a vast array of tech projects: building the physical infrastructure for 5G networks, laying fiber optic cable, and constructing and equipping data centers. By design, it also includes promoting China’s standards for telecom, satellite navigation, artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and electronic payment systems throughout the countries where DSR projects are underway.

DSR projects combine the hard and soft infrastructure that enable the trade efficiencies promised by this next generation of technology. Under the so-called “franchise” model, public and private Chinese tech companies leverage state funding, political support, and the China brand to compete effectively for major projects around the world. The growing network of BRI trade hubs are connected through smart ports and digital free trade zones.

Title to DSR map
Merics_Digital-Silkroad-Tracker_RGB_final_web_0

Tech-Fueled Competition

Many developing countries are attracted to China’s investments that enable technological leapfrogging and the deployment of next-generation technologies in manufacturing and service-delivery. But China’s aggressive strategy has led to mounting concerns about the security implications of China’s potential dominance in the technology that drives the global economy, but that could also be used in more concerning ways.

Chinese tech products, particularly in telecommunications, are alleged to enable cyber espionage, providing the Chinese Communist Party access to sensitive data. China’s push to conform international standards to Chinese tech products could effectively shut out competition in third markets. The Trump administration initiated an investigation into unfair trade practices such as state funding to companies like Huawei that enable them to undercut Western competitors on price. The international community is also raising concerns about China’s use of facial surveillance products to target and suppress political, religious, or ethnic minorities, amounting to fears that a techno-authoritarianism governance model could also be exported.

Some of these concerns may be overstated, but the lines between private competition and state security are blurred when it comes to emerging technologies in China. Chinese companies are capable of producing high-quality 5G telecom products. China’s satellite navigation system, known as Beidou, went fully operational in June, and stands as a competitor to the U.S. GPS system and Europe’s Galileo system. China dominates the financial technology space, largely leapfrogging credit cards and offering solutions to global financial inclusion. China is also launching a digital currency that will be piloted domestically and along the BRI. Most controversially, China is the global leader in surveillance and facial recognition technology, offering these products at a much lower cost without the significant export controls used by other countries.

30 countries MOU revised

How a Tech War Could Affect Trade

The DSR is part of a larger tech race which could divide the world into at least two systems: one operating with Chinese products and standards, the other with Western products and standards. Separate systems could face interoperability issues and challenges with cross border data flows or become subject to geopolitical fractures that force countries to choose political sides when they choose tech systems. Or, countries may have to build infrastructure to accommodate both systems, at great expense, which could undermine many of the trade efficiencies that would otherwise be achieved by these technologies.

The opening battles of the tech race are already producing trade disruptions. After years of pressure by the United States, the UK announced last week that Huawei products are barred from their telecom networks, citing national security concerns. British telecom companies are prohibited from buying Huawei products after this year and will have seven years to remove all Huawei products from current networks. The United States placed Huawei on its Entity List, limiting U.S. exports to Huawei that will severely restrict the company’s access to the semiconductors needed to make their products. That lack of access will also factor in countries’ decisions about the viability of Huawei systems in the long run. And last week, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that employees of Huawei and other Chinese tech firms will not be eligible for U.S. visas, citing complicity in human rights violations.

Despite the international response, China’s biggest challenge may arise from its internal policies restricting cross border data flows, as well as from conflicts between its domestic practices and other country’s requirements to secure data and protect privacy.

Where the Fault Lines May Emerge

Even as it works to overcome these hurdles, China’s tech drive into developing countries will continue. Many developing countries are reeling from the pandemic and falling behind on building digital infrastructure.

The Chinese government offers an attractive lifeline to developing countries, packaging hard infrastructure and software at good prices and high quality. It can build a new port and digitize traditional port operations while investing in the development of smart cities around those smart ports. China’s offer may prove to be more consequential in practical and political terms than ever before. Without strong alternatives, the tech competition could create fault lines in developing countries, further fracturing global trade.

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Leigh Wedell

Leigh Wedell is a Founder and COO of Basilinna and Senior Fellow at the Paulson Institute. A veteran facilitator of U.S.-China business relations, she has advised leading multinational firms across all major business sectors on China market entry and expansion, crisis management, and corporate social responsibility programs. She began her career working on political development projects traveling to more than half of China’s provinces.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

commerce

COMMERCE CLEARS WAY FOR U.S. COMPANIES TO MORE FULLY ENGAGE IN TECH STANDARDS-DEVELOPMENT BODIES

U.S. Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross on June 15 announced a new rule ensuring U.S. industry’s ability to more fully contribute to standards-development activities in the telecommunications sector. This action is meant to ensure Huawei’s placement on the Entity List in May 2019 does not prevent American companies from contributing to important standards-developing activities despite Huawei’s pervasive participation in standards-development organizations.

“The United States will not cede leadership in global innovation,” Ross said. “This action recognizes the importance of harnessing American ingenuity to advance and protect our economic and national security. The department is committed to protecting U.S. national security and foreign policy interests by encouraging U.S. industry to fully engage and advocate for U.S. technologies to become international standards.”

Those standards serve as the critical building blocks for technological development by enabling functionality, interoperability and safety, argues Commerce, which adds that U.S. participation and leadership in standard-setting influences the future of 5G, autonomous vehicles, artificial intelligence and other cutting-edge technologies.

Under the new Bureau of Industry and Security rule, technology that would not have required a license to be disclosed to Huawei before the company’s placement on the Entity List can be disclosed for the purpose of standards development in a standards-development body without the need for an export license.

blacklisting

BLACKLISTING DEPLOYED IN THE BATTLE OVER TECH TRADE

National Security an Overriding Consideration

If there is one defining feature of current U.S. trade policy, it is that national security has become an overriding consideration in how the United States engages China. It is also a focal point of U.S. engagement with its main allied trading partners.

The Trump administration has added many tools to its arsenal in combatting what it refers to as “vectors of economic aggression” by China. Tariffs are only the most visible. The United States – and other countries – are increasingly turning to the practice of “blacklisting” persons and companies that pose a national security risk.

Through controls on exports of particular technologies, governments can either prohibit their sale to foreign entities, governments or individuals, or require the technologies be sold only upon issuance of a government license.

Not New, But Expanded

Controlling the export of commercial technologies that have “dual use” or military applications is a longstanding practice. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 includes a general prohibition on quantitative restrictions on both imports and exports, but contains built-in exceptions that allow for export control regimes.

In the United States, the Export Control Act requires the Secretary of Commerce to establish and maintain a list of controlled items, foreign persons, and end-uses determined to be a threat to U.S. national security and foreign policy for the purpose of regulating the export, reexport and in-country transfer of those technologies and to those entities.

countries turning to blacklisting

Futureproofing

At today’s blistering pace of tech innovation, the lines between technologies that are used commercially in the products we buy as private sector businesses and consumers are increasingly blurred with their potential applications in a military setting.

Under the 2018 Export Control Reform Act, Congress authorized the Commerce Department to review its list of controlled technologies to consider “emerging and foundational technologies” that should be added to its control list.

The technologies contemplated include a hit parade of Sci-Fi innovations such as neural networks and deep learning, swarming technology, self-assembling robots and smart dust (whatever that is), in addition to more recognizable technologies such as quantum computing, additive manufacturing and propulsion technologies.

Special Designations

In addition to technologies that may be controlled for export, the Commerce Department also maintains a Restricted Entity List. Entities designated are subject to a policy of presumed denial for all products, whether on the controlled technologies list or not. American companies may not export to entities on this list except through waivers and specific licenses.

Huawei Technologies, the Chinese telecommunications giant that is chasing global market share in 5G mobile technology, finds itself on the Restricted Entity List, along with all of its overseas affiliates. Other Chinese companies on the list include FiberHome Technologies Group, another 5G network equipment provider, as well as China’s leading artificial intelligence startups Megvii, SenseTime and Yitu Technologies.

The U.S. government is concerned with entities that could engage in industrial and electronic espionage and infiltrate critical U.S. military systems. But the Commerce Department also took the novel step recently of adding companies to its Restricted Entity List that furnish the Chinese state and its security bureaus with technologies used to surveil and repress civil society.

In October 2019, the United States blacklisted 28 Chinese governmental and commercial organizations, citing human rights violations and abuses in China’s campaign targeting Uighurs and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minorities in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. The companies included Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Co. and Zhejiang Dahua Technology Co. which are two of the world’s largest producers of surveillance products as well as several of China’s leading companies in facial and voice recognition.

A Chinese Finger Trap

Last month, as U.S.-China relations continued to deteriorate in very public ways, the U.S. government added two dozen more Chinese governmental and commercial organizations to the Restricted Entity List. The Department of Commerce said they have ties to weapons of mass destruction and military activities.

As with a Chinese finger trap, American companies are now ensnared at both ends. They must comply with U.S. export restrictions but doing so may land them on China’s newly created “Unreliable Entity List”. China created the list as a countermeasure and says it will go after American companies for causing “material damage to the legitimate interests of Chinese companies and relevant industrial sectors” and creating a potential threat to China’s national security.

American cos caught in trap

More Can Play at That Game

The global landscape is actively shifting as countries work to shore up and modernize their export control regimes.

In 2009, the European Union (EU) set up a community-wide regime for the control of exports, transfers, brokering and transit of dual-use items to ensure a common EU list of dual-use items, common criteria for assessments and authorizations throughout the EU.

Last year, Japan and Korea got into a major trade spat when the Japanese government removed South Korea from its so-called “white list” of preferred trading partners for strategic technologies, subjecting some Japanese exports to South Korea to new screening.

Japan’s placement of three chemicals used to make computer chips on the control list resulted in delayed shipments that affected the entire global semiconductor industry since South Korean companies account for nearly two-thirds of the world’s memory chips. South Korea retaliated by dropping Japan from its white list.

One Good Turn Deserves Another

For its part, China deemed its own “Unreliable Entity List” to be unreliable. In January this year (on the same date the U.S.-China Phase One deal was signed in Washington) the National People’s Congress in Beijing published a draft of China’s first comprehensive national Export Control Law, providing China with increased leverage to apply and counteract U.S. export control measures. Safe to say we’ll be reading a lot more about blacklisting in the coming years.

An interesting report to dive deeper:

2018 Report on Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls, U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security

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Andrea Durkin is the Editor-in-Chief of TradeVistas and Founder of Sparkplug, LLC. Ms. Durkin previously served as a U.S. Government trade negotiator and has proudly taught international trade policy and negotiations for the last fifteen years as an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University’s Master of Science in Foreign Service program.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.