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COMMERCE ISSUES PRELIMINARY DETERMINATIONS IN PROBES OF DRIED TART CHERRY IMPORTS FROM TURKEY

commerce

COMMERCE ISSUES PRELIMINARY DETERMINATIONS IN PROBES OF DRIED TART CHERRY IMPORTS FROM TURKEY

The U.S. Department of Commerce on Sept. 23 announced the affirmative preliminary determinations in the antidumping duty (AD) and countervailing duty (CVD) investigations of imports of dried tart cherries from Turkey, finding that exporters sold dried tart cherries at less than fair value at rates ranging from 541.29 to 648.35 percent and received countervailable subsidies at a rate of 204.93 percent.

Commerce will instruct U.S. Customs and Border Protection to collect cash deposits from importers of dried tart cherries from Turkey based on these preliminary rates.

Investigations were initiated based on petitions filed by the Dried Tart Cherry Trade Committee, whose members include Cherry Central Cooperative (Traverse City, Michigan), Graceland Fruit, Inc. (Frankfort, Michigan), Payson Fruit Growers Coop (Payson, Utah), Shoreline Fruit, LLC (Traverse City, Michigan) and Smeltzer Orchard Co. (Frankfort, Michigan). In 2018, imports of dried tart cherries from Turkey were valued at an estimated $1.2 million.

Commerce is scheduled to announce its final AD and CVD determinations on or about Dec. 5. If affirmative final determinations are made, the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) will be scheduled to make its final injury determinations on or about Jan. 21, 2020. Only if both Commerce and the ITC make affirmative final injury determinations will AD and CVD orders be issued. Any negative final determinations end the investigations with no orders issued.

grapefruit

Grapefruit Market in Asia – Japan Halved Grapefruit Imports Over the Last Decade

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘Asia – Grapefruits (Inc. Pomelos) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the grapefruit market in Asia amounted to $6.4B in 2018, picking up by 6.1% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, grapefruit consumption continues to indicate strong growth. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2015 when the market value increased by 18% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the grapefruit market reached its maximum level in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Consumption By Country in Asia

China (4.8M tonnes) remains the largest grapefruit consuming country in Asia, comprising approx. 72% of total consumption. Moreover, grapefruit consumption in China exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest consumer, Viet Nam (611K tonnes), eightfold. India (377K tonnes) ranked third in terms of total consumption with a 5.6% share.

In China, grapefruit consumption increased at an average annual rate of +7.5% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Viet Nam (+5.5% per year) and India (+7.1% per year).

In value terms, China ($4.5B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Viet Nam ($707M). It was followed by Thailand.

The countries with the highest levels of grapefruit per capita consumption in 2018 were Viet Nam (6,331 kg per 1000 persons), China (3,340 kg per 1000 persons) and Thailand (3,267 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of grapefruit per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by China, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in Asia

Driven by increasing demand for grapefruit in Asia, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. Market performance is forecast to decelerate, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +3.7% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 8.7M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in Asia

The grapefruit production stood at 7M tonnes in 2018, growing by 6.4% against the previous year. The total output indicated a remarkable increase from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.6% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, grapefruit production increased by +81.9% against 2007 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2015 when production volume increased by 12% y-o-y. Over the period under review, grapefruit production reached its maximum volume in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term. The general positive trend in terms of grapefruit output was largely conditioned by a resilient increase of the harvested area and temperate growth in yield figures.

In value terms, grapefruit production stood at $6.9B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Overall, grapefruit production continues to indicate a strong increase. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2015 when production volume increased by 18% against the previous year. The level of grapefruit production peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Production By Country in Asia

The country with the largest volume of grapefruit production was China (5M tonnes), accounting for 71% of total production. Moreover, grapefruit production in China exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest producer, Viet Nam (598K tonnes), eightfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by India (377K tonnes), with a 5.4% share.

From 2007 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of volume in China amounted to +7.5%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Viet Nam (+5.3% per year) and India (+7.1% per year).

Harvested Area in Asia

In 2018, the total area harvested in terms of grapefruits production in Asia stood at 220K ha, going up by 3.7% against the previous year. The harvested area increased at an average annual rate of +2.8% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2015 with an increase of 18% year-to-year. The level of grapefruit harvested area peaked at 226K ha in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, harvested area stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Yield in Asia

The average grapefruit yield amounted to 32 tonne per ha in 2018, jumping by 2.6% against the previous year. The yield figure increased at an average annual rate of +2.7% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when yield increased by 9.6% against the previous year. The level of grapefruit yield peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Exports in Asia

In 2018, the amount of grapefruits exported in Asia amounted to 525K tonnes, jumping by 21% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.6% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 23% year-to-year. Over the period under review, grapefruit exports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

In value terms, grapefruit exports totaled $449M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated a strong expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +5.6% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, grapefruit exports increased by +15.7% against 2014 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008 with an increase of 21% y-o-y. Over the period under review, grapefruit exports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

In 2018, China (211K tonnes) and Turkey (182K tonnes) were the major exporters of grapefruits in Asia, together recording near 75% of total exports. It was distantly followed by Israel (88K tonnes), achieving a 17% share of total exports. China, Hong Kong SAR (16K tonnes) and Cyprus (8.3K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by China, Hong Kong SAR, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest grapefruit markets in Asia were China ($200M), Turkey ($119M) and Israel ($87M), with a combined 91% share of total exports. These countries were followed by China, Hong Kong SAR and Cyprus, which together accounted for a further 4%.

Among the main exporting countries, China, Hong Kong SAR recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The grapefruit export price in Asia stood at $855 per tonne in 2018, waning by -3.7% against the previous year. Over the last eleven years, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.2%. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when the export price increased by 10% y-o-y. In that year, the export prices for grapefruits attained their peak level of $888 per tonne, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Israel ($995 per tonne), while Cyprus ($585 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, Hong Kong SAR, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in Asia

In 2018, the amount of grapefruits imported in Asia totaled 272K tonnes, surging by 24% against the previous year. In general, grapefruit imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 when imports increased by 24% y-o-y. Over the period under review, grapefruit imports reached their maximum at 280K tonnes in 2010; however, from 2011 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, grapefruit imports amounted to $232M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, grapefruit imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 when imports increased by 15% y-o-y. The level of imports peaked at $236M in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, imports remained at a lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Japan (85K tonnes), distantly followed by China (45K tonnes), Saudi Arabia (34K tonnes), South Korea (23K tonnes), China, Hong Kong SAR (23K tonnes) and Viet Nam (15K tonnes) were the largest importers of grapefruits, together comprising 83% of total imports. Iraq (11K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Viet Nam (+115.4% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Japan ($64M), China ($60M) and South Korea ($32M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 67% share of total imports. China, Hong Kong SAR, Saudi Arabia, Viet Nam and Iraq lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 21%.

Viet Nam (+99.6% per year) experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The grapefruit import price in Asia stood at $853 per tonne in 2018, dropping by -8.6% against the previous year. Overall, the grapefruit import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when the import price increased by 12% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for grapefruits reached their peak level of $933 per tonne, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was South Korea ($1,420 per tonne), while Iraq ($323 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by China, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

orange juice

Global Concentrated Orange Juice Market – Brazil Strengthened Its Position as the World’s Leading Exporter

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Concentrated Orange Juice – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global concentrated orange juice market revenue amounted to $4B in 2018, growing by 6.1% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.5% from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The global concentrated orange juice market peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the near future.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of concentrated orange juice consumption in 2018 were Brazil (674K tonnes), the U.S. (656K tonnes) and France (141K tonnes), with a combined 62% share of global consumption. The UK, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan, Spain and Ireland lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 18%.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of concentrated orange juice consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Japan, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the U.S. ($1.4B), Brazil ($1.1B) and France ($218M) were the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, together accounting for 69% of the global market. These countries were followed by the Netherlands, Belgium, Japan, the UK, Ireland and Spain, which together accounted for a further 16%.

The countries with the highest levels of concentrated orange juice per capita consumption in 2018 were Belgium (8,445 kg per 1000 persons), Ireland (7,486 kg per 1000 persons) and the Netherlands (5,039 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of concentrated orange juice per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Japan, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by rising demand for concentrated orange juice worldwide, the market is expected to start an upward consumption trend over the next seven years. The performance of the market is forecast to increase slightly, with an anticipated CAGR of +0.6% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 2.5M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the amount of concentrated orange juice produced worldwide totaled 2.2M tonnes, rising by 6% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% over the period from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 with an increase of 8.3% against the previous year. Over the period under review, global concentrated orange juice production reached its peak figure volume in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, concentrated orange juice production amounted to $3.4B in 2018 estimated in export prices. In general, the total output indicated a perceptible expansion from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, concentrated orange juice production increased by +19.1% against 2016 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2012 when production volume increased by 53% against the previous year. Over the period under review, global concentrated orange juice production reached its maximum level at $3.5B in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Production By Country

Brazil (1.1M tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of concentrated orange juice production, accounting for 49% of total production. Moreover, concentrated orange juice production in Brazil exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest producer, the U.S. (413K tonnes), threefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Mexico (137K tonnes), with a 6.4% share.

In Brazil, concentrated orange juice production expanded at an average annual rate of +3.1% over the period from 2008-2018. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: the U.S. (+0.7% per year) and Mexico (+16.9% per year).

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports totaled 1.3M tonnes in 2018, growing by 16% against the previous year. In general, concentrated orange juice exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 when exports increased by 16% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global concentrated orange juice exports attained their peak figure at 1.6M tonnes in 2009; however, from 2010 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, concentrated orange juice exports amounted to $2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, concentrated orange juice exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 when exports increased by 11% y-o-y. The global exports peaked at $2.3B in 2011; however, from 2012 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

Exports by Country

Brazil was the largest exporting country with an export of about 381K tonnes, which amounted to 30% of total exports. Belgium (146K tonnes) occupied a 12% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by the Netherlands (12%), Mexico (11%), Costa Rica (9.4%) and Germany (5.2%). The following exporters – Spain (31K tonnes), South Africa (25K tonnes), the UK (22K tonnes), Thailand (20K tonnes) and the U.S. (20K tonnes) – each finished at a 9.4% share of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, average annual rates of growth with regard to concentrated orange juice exports from Brazil stood at +1.1%. At the same time, Mexico (+29.4%), Costa Rica (+16.4%), South Africa (+9.4%), the UK (+7.3%) and Thailand (+1.6%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Mexico emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the world, with a CAGR of +29.4% from 2008-2018. By contrast, the Netherlands (-1.4%), Germany (-4.0%), the U.S. (-4.0%), Spain (-6.6%) and Belgium (-9.5%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2008 to 2018, the share of Mexico, Costa Rica and Brazil increased by +9.9%, +7.4% and +3% percentage points, while the Netherlands (-1.7 p.p.), Spain (-2.5 p.p.), Germany (-2.6 p.p.) and Belgium (-19.9 p.p.) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest concentrated orange juice markets worldwide were Brazil ($706M), Belgium ($418M) and the Netherlands ($358M), together accounting for 74% of global exports. Germany, Costa Rica, Mexico, the U.S., Spain, South Africa, the UK and Thailand lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 18%.

Mexico recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, among the main exporting countries over the last decade, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The average concentrated orange juice export price stood at $1,593 per tonne in 2018, declining by -6.4% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the concentrated orange juice export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 an increase of 28% year-to-year. In that year, the average export prices for concentrated orange juice attained their peak level of $1,744 per tonne. From 2012 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average export prices for concentrated orange juice remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Belgium ($2,855 per tonne), while Mexico ($418 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 1.5M tonnes of concentrated orange juice were imported worldwide; jumping by 17% against the previous year. Over the period under review, concentrated orange juice imports, however, continue to indicate a measured deduction. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2018 when imports increased by 17% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global concentrated orange juice imports attained their maximum at 2M tonnes in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, concentrated orange juice imports stood at $2.3B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, concentrated orange juice imports, however, continue to indicate a measured drop. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 23% against the previous year. The global imports peaked at $2.8B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports remained at a lower figure.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of concentrated orange juice imports in 2018 were the U.S. (263K tonnes), the Netherlands (231K tonnes), Belgium (190K tonnes), France (142K tonnes), the UK (122K tonnes) and Germany (101K tonnes), together amounting to 71% of total import. The following importers – Japan (51K tonnes), Spain (44K tonnes), Ireland (41K tonnes) and Poland (35K tonnes) – together made up 11% of total imports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Japan, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the Netherlands ($471M), Belgium ($347M) and Germany ($227M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 46% share of global imports. These countries were followed by the UK, France, the U.S., Japan, Spain, Poland and Ireland, which together accounted for a further 37%.

Among the main importing countries, Japan experienced the highest growth rate of imports, over the last decade, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average concentrated orange juice import price amounted to $1,523 per tonne, coming down by -6.1% against the previous year. In general, the concentrated orange juice import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when the average import price increased by 28% against the previous year. In that year, the average import prices for concentrated orange juice attained their peak level of $1,625 per tonne. From 2012 to 2018, the growth in terms of the average import prices for concentrated orange juice failed to regain its momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Spain ($2,496 per tonne), while the U.S. ($450 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Spain, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

pork

EU Salt Pork Market Is Estimated at $5.2B

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Pig Meat Salted (Salted, In Brine, Dried Or Smoked) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The market size for preserved pork in the European Union is estimated at $5.2B (2018), an increase of 3.5% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

Over the period under review, preserved pork consumption, however, continues to indicate a temperate setback. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 5.6% against the previous year. The level of preserved pork consumption peaked at $6.8B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The UK (419K tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of preserved pork consumption, accounting for 39% of total consumption. Moreover, preserved pork consumption in the UK exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest consumer, Germany (116K tonnes), fourfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Italy (94K tonnes), with a 8.8% share.

From 2008 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume in the UK totaled -2.7%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Germany (-5.0% per year) and Italy (+6.8% per year).

In value terms, the UK ($1.9B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($748M). It was followed by Germany.

The countries with the highest levels of preserved pork per capita consumption in 2018 were Ireland (12,561 kg per 1000 persons), the UK (6,284 kg per 1000 persons) and Romania (2,789 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of preserved pork per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Austria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Production in the EU

In 2018, the amount of pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) produced in the European Union totaled 1.1M tonnes, remaining constant against the previous year. Over the period under review, preserved pork production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2009 with an increase of 11% y-o-y. In that year, preserved pork production attained its peak volume of 1.3M tonnes. From 2010 to 2018, preserved pork production growth remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, preserved pork production stood at $4.8B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Overall, preserved pork production, however, continues to indicate a measured setback. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 with an increase of 6.8% year-to-year. The level of preserved pork production peaked at $6.4B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of preserved pork production in 2018 were the UK (247K tonnes), Germany (151K tonnes) and Italy (141K tonnes), with a combined 48% share of total production.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of preserved pork production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Italy, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the preserved pork exports in the European Union totaled 398K tonnes, stabilizing at the previous year. In general, preserved pork exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 with an increase of 5.7% y-o-y. The volume of exports peaked at 423K tonnes in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, preserved pork exports totaled $2.2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, preserved pork exports continue to indicate a slight descent. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when exports increased by 8.1% year-to-year. The level of exports peaked at $2.4B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

Exports by Country

In 2018, the Netherlands (98K tonnes), distantly followed by Italy (60K tonnes), Germany (58K tonnes), Denmark (55K tonnes), Spain (50K tonnes), Poland (31K tonnes) and the UK (18K tonnes) were the major exporters of pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked), together committing 93% of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Italy ($648M), Spain ($423M) and the Netherlands ($292M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, with a combined 63% share of total exports.

Spain experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, in terms of the main exporting countries over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the preserved pork export price in the European Union amounted to $5,399 per tonne, remaining relatively unchanged against the previous year. Overall, the preserved pork export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when the export price increased by 6.7% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the export prices for pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) attained their peak figure at $6,151 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Italy ($10,792 per tonne), while Denmark ($2,876 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the export price figures.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) imported in the European Union totaled 339K tonnes, going up by 1.9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, preserved pork imports, however, continue to indicate a temperate slump. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 with an increase of 48% y-o-y. In that year, preserved pork imports attained their peak of 433K tonnes. From 2011 to 2018, the growth of preserved pork imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, preserved pork imports stood at $1.8B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, preserved pork imports, however, continue to indicate a temperate setback. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 10% against the previous year. The level of imports peaked at $2.3B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

Imports by Country

The UK prevails in preserved pork imports structure, accounting for 190K tonnes, which was approx. 56% of total imports in 2018. France (34K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total imports with a 10% share, followed by Germany (7%) and Ireland (4.9%). The following importers – Italy (13,638 tonnes), Austria (8,514 tonnes), Denmark (8,242 tonnes), Belgium (8,025 tonnes) and the Netherlands (5,643 tonnes) – together made up 13% of total imports.

From 2008 to 2018, average annual rates of growth with regard to preserved pork imports into the UK stood at -4.0%. At the same time, Austria (+9.6%), France (+3.5%), Germany (+3.0%), Italy (+2.3%) and Ireland (+2.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Austria emerged as the fastest-growing importer in the European Union, with a CAGR of +9.6% from 2008-2018. By contrast, Belgium (-1.6%), Denmark (-5.5%) and the Netherlands (-8.0%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. France (+2.9 p.p.), Germany (+1.8 p.p.) and Austria (+1.5 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the total imports, while Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK saw its share reduced by -1.9%, -2.2% and -27.9% from 2008 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the UK ($634M) constitutes the largest market for imported pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) in the European Union, comprising 36% of total preserved pork imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($280M), with a 16% share of total imports. It was followed by Germany, with a 14% share.

In the UK, preserved pork imports shrank by an average annual rate of -6.5% over the period from 2008-2018. The remaining importing countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: France (+1.7% per year) and Germany (+1.6% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the preserved pork import price in the European Union amounted to $5,220 per tonne, jumping by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the preserved pork import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2009 an increase of 22% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) reached their peak level of $6,609 per tonne. From 2010 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($11,387 per tonne), while the UK ($3,331 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

global pepper

Global Pepper Market Is Expected to Reach 840K Tonnes by 2025

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Pepper – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global pepper market revenue in 2018 is estimated at $4.1B, a decrease of -1.7% y-o-y. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, pepper consumption continues to indicate a strong expansion. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when the market value increased by 26% against the previous year. The global pepper consumption peaked at $4.2B in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of pepper consumption in 2018 were Viet Nam (166K tonnes), India (86K tonnes) and the U.S. (68K tonnes), with a combined 41% share of global consumption. These countries were followed by Bulgaria, Indonesia, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Germany, the United Arab Emirates and the UK, which together accounted for a further 33%.

In value terms, Viet Nam ($904M), India ($506M) and the U.S. ($374M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 43% share of the global market. These countries were followed by Indonesia, Singapore, China, Malaysia, Bulgaria, Sri Lanka, the United Arab Emirates, Germany and the UK, which together accounted for a further 33%.

The countries with the highest levels of pepper per capita consumption in 2018 were Bulgaria (7,641 kg per 1000 persons), Singapore (5,288 kg per 1000 persons) and Viet Nam (1,724 kg per 1000 persons).

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for pepper worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to decelerate, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.2% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 840K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the amount of pepper produced worldwide stood at 752K tonnes, jumping by 5.1% against the previous year. In general, the total output indicated a conspicuous expansion from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +3.2% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, pepper production increased by +55.4% against 2012 indices. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2016 with an increase of 11% against the previous year. Over the period under review, global pepper production reached its maximum volume in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term. The general positive trend in terms of pepper output was largely conditioned by a tangible increase of the harvested area and a resilient expansion in yield figures.

In value terms, pepper production totaled $3.8B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, pepper production continues to indicate a remarkable increase. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when production volume increased by 47% against the previous year. The global pepper production peaked at $4.6B in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, production remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country

The country with the largest volume of pepper production was Viet Nam (273K tonnes), comprising approx. 36% of total production. Moreover, pepper production in Viet Nam exceeded the figures recorded by the world’s second-largest producer, Indonesia (88K tonnes), threefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Brazil (80K tonnes), with a 11% share.

In Viet Nam, pepper production expanded at an average annual rate of +8.1% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Indonesia (+0.8% per year) and Brazil (+0.2% per year).

Harvested Area 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 570K ha of pepper were harvested worldwide; stabilizing at the previous year. Overall, the pepper harvested area, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2009 when harvested area increased by 8% against the previous year. The global pepper harvested area peaked at 622K ha in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, harvested area failed to regain its momentum.

Yield 2007-2018

Global average pepper yield amounted to 1.3 tonne per ha in 2018, surging by 4.8% against the previous year. In general, the yield indicated prominent growth from 2007 to 2018: its figure increased at an average annual rate of +4.0% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, pepper yield increased by +53.3% against 2012 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 22% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the average pepper yield attained its maximum level in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports 2007-2018

Global exports totaled 392K tonnes in 2018, picking up by 6.5% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2015 with an increase of 7.9% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global pepper exports attained their maximum at 398K tonnes in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, pepper exports stood at $2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, pepper exports continue to indicate strong growth. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 43% against the previous year. Over the period under review, global pepper exports reached their peak figure at $3.4B in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

Exports by Country

Viet Nam represented the largest exporter of pepper in the world, with the volume of exports finishing at 142K tonnes, which was approx. 36% of total exports in 2018. It was distantly followed by Brazil (73K tonnes) and Indonesia (36K tonnes), together achieving a 28% share of total exports. India (17K tonnes), Germany (16K tonnes), Sri Lanka (15K tonnes), Malaysia (12K tonnes), Mexico (8.4K tonnes), the Netherlands (7.5K tonnes), France (6.8K tonnes) and the U.S. (6.8K tonnes) took a minor share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by France, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Viet Nam ($743M) remains the largest pepper supplier worldwide, comprising 36% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Brazil ($243M), with a 12% share of global exports. It was followed by Indonesia, with a 9.9% share.

In Viet Nam, pepper exports increased at an average annual rate of +9.6% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Brazil (+7.3% per year) and Indonesia (+2.9% per year).

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average pepper export price amounted to $5,214 per tonne, going down by -14.2% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the pepper export price, however, continues to indicate remarkable growth. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 an increase of 51% y-o-y. The global export price peaked at $8,660 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, export prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was the Netherlands ($8,605 per tonne), while Mexico ($2,602 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by India, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

Global imports totaled 414K tonnes in 2018, picking up by 8.6% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when imports increased by 9.8% y-o-y. Over the period under review, global pepper imports attained their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

In value terms, pepper imports amounted to $2.1B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, pepper imports continue to indicate a strong expansion. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when imports increased by 41% year-to-year. The global imports peaked at $3.3B in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, imports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, the U.S. (75K tonnes), distantly followed by Viet Nam (35K tonnes), Germany (32K tonnes) and India (31K tonnes) were the major importers of pepper, together creating 42% of total imports. The following importers – the United Arab Emirates (16K tonnes), the UK (13K tonnes), France (11K tonnes), the Netherlands (11K tonnes), Spain (10K tonnes), Japan (9.5K tonnes), Pakistan (8.2K tonnes) and Russia (8K tonnes) – together made up 21% of total imports.

Imports into the U.S. increased at an average annual rate of +1.5% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Viet Nam (+21.5%), India (+8.8%), the UK (+5.4%), the United Arab Emirates (+3.9%), Spain (+2.9%), Russia (+2.6%) and France (+2.0%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Viet Nam emerged as the fastest-growing importer in the world, with a CAGR of +21.5% from 2007-2018. Pakistan, Japan and Germany experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, the Netherlands (-2.7%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2018, the share of Viet Nam, India and the U.S. increased by +7.5%, +4.5% and +2.7% percentage points, while the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the U.S. ($391M) constitutes the largest market for imported pepper worldwide, comprising 18% of global imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Germany ($188M), with a 8.9% share of global imports. It was followed by India, with a 7.8% share.

In the U.S., pepper imports increased at an average annual rate of +5.5% over the period from 2007-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Germany (+4.8% per year) and India (+14.1% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average pepper import price amounted to $5,122 per tonne, shrinking by -18.3% against the previous year. In general, the pepper import price, however, continues to indicate noticeable growth. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 an increase of 45% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for pepper attained their peak figure at $8,550 per tonne in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, import prices remained at a lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was the United Arab Emirates ($8,027 per tonne), while Viet Nam ($2,485 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the United Arab Emirates, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

cotton-seed oil

Global Cotton-Seed Oil Market – Production Rose 2.7% to Reach 5.7M tonnes in 2018

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Cotton-Seed Oil – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The global cotton-seed oil market revenue amounted to $8.2B in 2018, falling by -3.6% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +2.3% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 13% y-o-y. The global cotton-seed oil consumption peaked at $8.9B in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, consumption stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Consumption By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cotton-seed oil consumption in 2018 were India (1.6M tonnes), China (1.4M tonnes) and Pakistan (470K tonnes), together comprising 62% of global consumption. These countries were followed by Brazil, Australia, Uzbekistan, Turkey, the U.S., Burkina Faso and Myanmar, which together accounted for a further 25%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cotton-seed oil consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Myanmar, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, India ($3.5B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by China ($1.5B). It was followed by Pakistan.

The countries with the highest levels of cotton-seed oil per capita consumption in 2018 were Australia (10,839 kg per 1000 persons), Uzbekistan (7,845 kg per 1000 persons) and Burkina Faso (4,923 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cotton-seed oil per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Myanmar, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025

Driven by increasing demand for cotton-seed oil worldwide, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.4% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 6.3M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production 2007-2018

In 2018, the amount of cotton-seed oil produced worldwide stood at 5.7M tonnes, going up by 2.7% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.0% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations over the period under review. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 with an increase of 6.5% y-o-y. The global cotton-seed oil production peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, cotton-seed oil production stood at $7.4B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, the total output indicated a modest increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +1.0% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2012 with an increase of 24% y-o-y. The global cotton-seed oil production peaked at $9.4B in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country

The countries with the highest volumes of cotton-seed oil production in 2018 were India (1.6M tonnes), China (1.4M tonnes) and Pakistan (470K tonnes), together accounting for 61% of global production. These countries were followed by Brazil, Australia, Uzbekistan, the U.S., Turkey, Burkina Faso and Myanmar, which together accounted for a further 26%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of cotton-seed oil production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Australia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports 2007-2018

In 2018, approx. 168K tonnes of cotton-seed oil were exported worldwide; picking up by 17% against the previous year. In general, cotton-seed oil exports, however, continue to indicate a mild slump. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 18% y-o-y. In that year, global cotton-seed oil exports reached their peak of 234K tonnes. From 2009 to 2018, the growth of global cotton-seed oil exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, cotton-seed oil exports amounted to $144M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, cotton-seed oil exports, however, continue to indicate a temperate deduction. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 18% year-to-year. In that year, global cotton-seed oil exports attained their peak of $237M. From 2009 to 2018, the growth of global cotton-seed oil exports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

The U.S. (47K tonnes) and Australia (42K tonnes) represented the key exporters of cotton-seed oil in 2018, resulting at approx. 28% and 25% of total exports, respectively. Kazakhstan (16K tonnes) held a 9.7% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by Malaysia (5.7%). The following exporters – Benin (7,036 tonnes), Argentina (6,725 tonnes), Azerbaijan (5,989 tonnes), South Africa (5,630 tonnes), Burkina Faso (4,310 tonnes) and Brazil (3,637 tonnes) – together made up 20% of total exports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Australia, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest cotton-seed oil markets worldwide were the U.S. ($42M), Australia ($25M) and Kazakhstan ($14M), together accounting for 56% of global exports.

In terms of the main exporting countries, Australia experienced the highest growth rate of exports, over the last eleven years, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average cotton-seed oil export price amounted to $857 per tonne, declining by -2.4% against the previous year. In general, the cotton-seed oil export price continues to indicate a mild descent. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 an increase of 6.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average export prices for cotton-seed oil attained their maximum at $1,012 per tonne in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was South Africa ($1,396 per tonne), while Azerbaijan ($558 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Brazil, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports 2007-2018

Global imports stood at 141K tonnes in 2018, picking up by 14% against the previous year. Overall, cotton-seed oil imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 with an increase of 36% year-to-year. The global imports peaked at 162K tonnes in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

In value terms, cotton-seed oil imports totaled $132M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, cotton-seed oil imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when imports increased by 33% year-to-year. Over the period under review, global cotton-seed oil imports attained their peak figure at $155M in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Mexico (16,353 tonnes), Malaysia (14,348 tonnes), Australia (13,963 tonnes), Saudi Arabia (12,915 tonnes), Tajikistan (11,277 tonnes), South Africa (8,493 tonnes), Nigeria (8,024 tonnes), Germany (6,365 tonnes), Canada (6,355 tonnes), India (6,036 tonnes), Uzbekistan (5,582 tonnes) and Kyrgyzstan (4,855 tonnes) were the major importers of cotton-seed oil in the world, achieving 81% of total import.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Saudi Arabia (+85.1% per year), while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Australia ($16M), Malaysia ($15M) and Mexico ($15M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 35% share of global imports. These countries were followed by Tajikistan, Nigeria, Canada, South Africa, Germany, India, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Saudi Arabia, which together accounted for a further 40%.

In terms of the main importing countries, Tajikistan experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, over the last eleven-year period, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The average cotton-seed oil import price stood at $939 per tonne in 2018, dropping by -2.4% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the cotton-seed oil import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2008 an increase of 18% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for cotton-seed oil reached their maximum at $1,116 per tonne in 2010; however, from 2011 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Canada ($1,220 per tonne), while Saudi Arabia ($6.6 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Mexico, while the other global leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

compliance

11 Common Misconceptions: Compliance & Denied Party Screening

With the growth of eCommerce, business integration, and global connectivity showing no sign of abating, compliance and denied party screening (DPS) have been thrust into the spotlight. The era of the mega fine has emerged, with fluid international sanctions policies impacting unsuspecting companies in unwelcome ways. In addition to the potential for reputational damage, penalties for non-compliance can include substantial fines—multimillions of dollars in some instances—, revocation of export privileges, and criminal charges, including prison time. 

The solution? Screening for restricted and denied parties, and due diligence to ensure that goods, technologies, and services are not destined for a sanctioned or embargoed country—not to mention screening every financial transaction—should be an integral component of every organization’s governance, risk, and compliance strategy. 

WHO NEEDS TO SCREEN?

While homeland security-sensitive industries (e.g., aerospace, defense, telecommunications, IT, energy, research, financial institutions) have a high bar when it comes to complying with U.S. and international export, trade, and financial laws, ordinary businesses from across all industries have an obligation to adhere to compliance requirements as well—and the penalties for non-compliance can be severe.

The reality is that companies found in violation of international trade regulations come from a wide spectrum of industries, not just the usual suspects. In fact, many organizations that have received financial, or even criminal, penalties fall outside the realm of the higher-risk industries. 

Unfortunately, many companies hold the erroneous belief that compliance and DPS do not apply to them. By increasing awareness surrounding the following misconceptions about compliance and restricted party screening, organizations can take a proactive and vigilant approach to mitigating risk and avoiding costly penalties.

DPS MYTHS: DON’T LET THEM HAPPEN TO YOU 

Screening doesn’t apply to our business, industry, or country.

All businesses, not just those operating within homeland security-sensitive industries, have an obligation to screen. Companies both in the U.S. and those outside of the country that engage with the United States in any capacity—including selling products or services in the U.S., or even using American banks and financial services for transactions—are subject to U.S. export and financial compliance laws.

We don’t need to screen because we supply services, not products.

Every time money changes hands, there is an obligation to ensure that the good or service is not destined for an individual or entity on a government watch list; services (e.g., travel agencies) are not exempt. 

We rely on a third party (e.g., freight forwarder) to screen for us.

Many companies make the mistake of thinking that the burden of compliance rests with the shipping or freight forwarding company but this is not always the case. The U.S. government can designate the owner or seller of the merchandise being exported (or imported) as the Exporter of Record, shifting the onus of compliance to both organizations. 

Our company operates domestically so screening is not required.

A significant number of individuals found on watch lists are U.S. nationals or citizens located in the United States who have been found guilty of violating export laws. Consequently, organizations are obligated to screen regardless of shipment destination.

Export laws don’t apply to us because we’re located outside the U.S. 

Regardless of where an organization’s headquarters or subsidiaries are based, it is highly likely that some, if not all, transactions flow through the U.S. financial system at one point in the purchasing or supply chain process. As such, these transactions fall under the purview of the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC).

We don’t export to countries under sanctions or embargoes.

Virtually every nation, on every continent, has debarred individuals and entities inside their borders—even Antarctica! Given the dynamic nature of international sanction policies, especially in the current political climate, organizations are at risk of engaging with a denied or restricted person or organization regardless of where they export. 

Our goods are EAR99 so we don’t need to screen.

Although an organization’s goods might be EAR99 (under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Commerce and not listed on the Commerce Control List), selling them to a denied party is still subject to penalty. For reference, the 2017 edition of the Bureau of Industry and Security’s Don’t Let This Happen to You is replete with examples of EAR99 export violations.

We already screened our customers and contacts once.

Denied and restricted party lists change frequently, in many cases daily. To ensure compliance, organizations would be best served by screening all transactions at multiple points throughout the business workflow.

The project we needed to screen for is complete so we’re in the clear.

While exports are commonly associated with the shipment of goods, export controls also encompass the transfer of technology, software, or technical data, even when the transfer occurs in the United States. Case in point: although a project may have concluded, the release of controlled technologies (a.k.a. deemed exports) to foreign nationals is subject to U.S. export laws.

We only need to screen the person to whom we’re shipping.

One of the most misunderstood areas of export compliance is the requirements surrounding end-use. End-use compliance involves requesting documentation from the purchaser to confirm they are the ultimate destination of the goods and that they will use the product as intended. While obtaining an end-user statement doesn’t guarantee the veracity of the purchaser’s claim, this process demonstrates that a company has taken additional measures to ensure adherence to export and trade compliance laws and will stand them in good stead if issues arise. 

We’ll just pay the fine.

Fines incurred as a result of an export of OFAC violation should not be treated as a business expense. In fact, criminal penalties can include jail time and organizations can have their export privileges revoked. Moreover, negative media attention is an increasing concern for risk-adverse organizations attempting to protect their reputation by avoiding conducting business with non-law-abiding people or companies. 

FINAL THOUGHTS

Penalties from any export, trade, or OFAC compliance violation can negatively impact an organization’s bottom line, or ultimately cripple a company’s trade. Implementing a comprehensive screening program that encompasses restricted and denied parties and sanctioned and embargoed countries, coupled with cultivating a culture of compliance within the organization, will help keep goods flowing while minimizing the risk of penalties. 

_______________________________________________________________________

Marc Roy is Vice President & General Manager, Compliance Solutions at Descartes Systems Group, the global leader in providing on-demand, software-as-a-service solutions focused on improving the productivity, performance, and security of logistics-intensive businesses. 

paperboard box

U.S. Folding Paperboard Box Market – Imports from China Recorded a Dramatic Increase of 17.9% in 2018

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘U.S. Folding Paperboard Box Market. Analysis And Forecast to 2025’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the folding paperboard box market in the U.S. amounted to $14.4B in 2018, remaining relatively unchanged against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, folding paperboard box consumption continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 with an increase of 2.9% y-o-y. Folding paperboard box consumption peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Folding Paperboard Box Production in the U.S.

In value terms, folding paperboard box production amounted to $14B in 2018. Overall, folding paperboard box production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 when production volume increased by 3% against the previous year. Folding paperboard box production peaked in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Exports from the U.S.

In 2018, the exports of folding paperboard box from the U.S. stood at 16K tonnes, declining by -16.7% against the previous year. Overall, folding paperboard box exports continue to indicate a noticeable deduction. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016 when exports increased by 13% year-to-year. In that year, folding paperboard box exports attained their peak of 20K tonnes. From 2017 to 2018, the growth of folding paperboard box exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, folding paperboard box exports totaled $42M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, folding paperboard box exports continue to indicate a moderate contraction. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016 when exports increased by 8.2% against the previous year. In that year, folding paperboard box exports attained their peak of $51M. From 2017 to 2018, the growth of folding paperboard box exports failed to regain its momentum.

Exports by Country

The Dominican Republic (1.9K tonnes), Belgium (1.1K tonnes) and Italy (932 tonnes) were the main destinations of folding paperboard box exports from the U.S., together accounting for 25% of total exports.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the Dominican Republic ($5.7M), Costa Rica ($3M) and Italy ($2.6M) were the largest markets for folding paperboard box exported from the U.S. worldwide, with a combined 27% share of total exports. These countries were followed by France, Panama, Germany, Belgium, the UK, Colombia, Nicaragua, the Netherlands and Ecuador, which together accounted for a further 34%.

Nicaragua experienced the highest growth rate of exports, in terms of the main countries of destination over the last five-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the average folding paperboard box export price amounted to $2,724 per tonne, rising by 4.2% against the previous year. Over the period from 2013 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.4%. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 an increase of 5.6% y-o-y. The export price peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

There were significant differences in the average prices for the major foreign markets. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Germany ($3,297 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Ecuador ($1,188 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to Panama, while the prices for the other major destinations experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into the U.S.

In 2018, the imports of folding paperboard box into the U.S. amounted to 161K tonnes, surging by 17% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.4% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 17% against the previous year. In that year, folding paperboard box imports reached their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, folding paperboard box imports stood at $536M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +6.0% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2018 with an increase of 14% y-o-y. In that year, folding paperboard box imports reached their peak and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

In 2018, China (103K tonnes) constituted the largest supplier of folding paperboard box to the U.S., accounting for a 64% share of total imports. Moreover, folding paperboard box imports from China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest supplier, Indonesia (15K tonnes), sevenfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Germany (10K tonnes), with a 6.4% share.

From 2013 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume from China amounted to +5.1%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: Indonesia (+11.4% per year) and Germany (+20.5% per year).

In value terms, China ($387M) constituted the largest supplier of folding paperboard box to the U.S., comprising 72% of total folding paperboard box imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Germany ($26M), with a 4.8% share of total imports. It was followed by Indonesia, with a 3.9% share.

From 2013 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value from China amounted to +5.8%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: Germany (+17.1% per year) and Indonesia (+7.2% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average folding paperboard box import price amounted to $3,337 per tonne, dropping by -2.2% against the previous year. Overall, the folding paperboard box import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when the average import price increased by 3.2% y-o-y. The import price peaked at $3,413 per tonne in 2017, and then declined slightly in the following year.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was China ($3,755 per tonne), while the price for Turkey ($1,213 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Taiwan, Chinese, while the prices for the other major suppliers experienced mixed trend patterns.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

textile bag

U.S. Textile Bag And Canvas Market – China’s Imports Bounces Back after Two Years of Decline

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘U.S. Textile Bag And Canvas Market. Analysis And Forecast to 2025’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the textile bag and canvas market in the U.S. amounted to $7B in 2018, increasing by 7.8% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +6.4% over the period from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 18% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the textile bag and canvas market attained its maximum level in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Production of Textile Bags And Canvases in the U.S.

In value terms, textile bag and canvas production amounted to $4B in 2018. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +8.3% from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when production volume increased by 20% against the previous year. Textile bag and canvas production peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Exports from the U.S.

In 2018, the amount of textile bags and canvases exported from the U.S. stood at 6.5K tonnes, growing by 51% against the previous year. Over the period under review, textile bag and canvas exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 51% y-o-y. Over the period under review, textile bag and canvas exports reached their peak figure at 7K tonnes in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, textile bag and canvas exports totaled $47M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, textile bag and canvas exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when exports increased by 36% against the previous year. Exports peaked at $59M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

Exports by Country

Thailand (578 tonnes), Australia (567 tonnes) and Trinidad and Tobago (464 tonnes) were the main destinations of textile bag and canvas exports from the U.S., with a combined 25% share of total exports. These countries were followed by Viet Nam, Poland, China, India, Russia, Malaysia, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica, which together accounted for a further 46%.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main countries of destination, was attained by Viet Nam (+1,030.1% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest markets for textile bag and canvas exported from the U.S. were Poland ($7.6M), Australia ($6.7M) and the Dominican Republic ($4.4M), with a combined 40% share of total exports. Costa Rica, China, Trinidad and Tobago, India, Nicaragua, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia and Russia lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 18%.

In terms of the main countries of destination, Viet Nam (+393.6% per year) recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, over the last five years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The average textile bag and canvas export price stood at $7,219 per tonne in 2018, waning by -45.8% against the previous year. Overall, the export price indicated a slight increase from 2013 to 2018: its price increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% over the last five years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017 when the average export price increased by 52% against the previous year. In that year, the average export prices for textile bags and canvases reached their peak level of $13,329 per tonne, and then declined slightly in the following year.

There were significant differences in the average prices for the major foreign markets. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Poland ($17,736 per tonne), while the average price for exports to Russia ($272 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was recorded for supplies to the Dominican Republic (+55.6% per year), while the prices for the other major destinations experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports into the U.S.

In 2018, the textile bag and canvas imports into the U.S. totaled 351K tonnes, rising by 8% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% over the period from 2013 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2018 with an increase of 8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, textile bag and canvas imports attained their maximum at 360K tonnes in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, imports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, textile bag and canvas imports totaled $1.5B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Overall, textile bag and canvas imports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2018 with an increase of 8.9% against the previous year. Imports peaked at $1.6B in 2015; however, from 2016 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

Imports by Country

In 2018, China (197K tonnes) constituted the largest supplier of textile bag and canvas to the U.S., with a 56% share of total imports. Moreover, textile bag and canvas imports from China exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest supplier, India (83K tonnes), twofold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Bangladesh (25K tonnes), with a 7.1% share.

From 2013 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume from China amounted to -2.2%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: India (+13.0% per year) and Bangladesh (+7.4% per year).

In value terms, China ($905M) constituted the largest supplier of textile bag and canvas to the U.S., comprising 62% of total textile bag and canvas imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by India ($218M), with a 15% share of total imports. It was followed by Bangladesh, with a 8.4% share.

From 2013 to 2018, the average annual rate of growth in terms of value from China stood at -3.0%. The remaining supplying countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: India (+11.5% per year) and Bangladesh (+5.9% per year).

After two years of decline, Chinese imports of textile bag and canvas into the U.S. rebounded in 2018, with an increase of 8.5% y-o-y.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the average textile bag and canvas import price amounted to $4,139 per tonne, standing approx. at the previous year. In general, the textile bag and canvas import price, however, continues to indicate a temperate descent. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2018 an increase of 0.8% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the average import prices for textile bags and canvases attained their maximum at $4,572 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major supplying countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Bangladesh ($4,877 per tonne), while the price for India ($2,627 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2013 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Indonesia, while the prices for the other major suppliers experienced a decline.

Companies Mentioned in the Report

Dhs Systems, Rainier Industries, Covercraft Industries, Duluth Trading Company, North Sails Group, J & M Industries, Anchor Industries, Thomas Sign and Awning Company, Holland Awning, Outdoor Research, Hdt Expeditionary Systems, Veada Industries, C. R. Daniels, Bestop, Starr Aircraft Products, ADM Corporation, Kenneth Fox Supply Company, Polytex Fibers, Adco Products, Marine Accessories Corporation, Gleason Corporation, Webasto-Edscha Cabrio USA, Outdoor Venture Corporation, Magna Car Top Systems of America, Mpc Group, Ajr Enterprises, Targus Group International, Bluewater Defense, Mondi Bags Usa

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

Wood Kitchenware And Tableware Market in the EU – A Ban on Single-Use Plastics Drives Demand for Wooden Products

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Tableware And Kitchenware Of Wood – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The European parliament has voted to ban single-use plastic cutlery, cotton buds, straws and stirrers as part of a sweeping law against plastic waste that despoils beaches and pollutes oceans. The vote by MEPs paves the way for a ban on single-use plastics to come into force by 2021 in all EU member states.

Against this background, there is an increase in the consumption of wooden cutlery and tableware instead of disposable plastic ones. Growing demand is supported by both expanding domestic production and accelerated growth in imports.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the wood kitchenware and tableware imports in the European Union amounted to 117K tonnes, surging by 3.3% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 14% against the previous year. Over the period under review, wood kitchenware and tableware imports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, wood kitchenware and tableware imports totaled $528M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total imports indicated a resilient expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, wood kitchenware and tableware imports increased by +18.6% against 2014 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2014 when imports increased by 24% y-o-y. The level of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue their growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Germany (26K tonnes), distantly followed by the UK (17K tonnes), France (15K tonnes), the Netherlands (14K tonnes), Italy (8.5K tonnes) and Belgium (6.8K tonnes) were the major importers of tableware and kitchenware of wood, together making up 75% of total imports. The following importers – Poland (4,740 tonnes), Sweden (3,802 tonnes), the Czech Republic (3,462 tonnes), Denmark (2,749 tonnes), Spain (2,325 tonnes) and Portugal (2,265 tonnes) – together made up 17% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by the Czech Republic, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest wood kitchenware and tableware importing markets in the European Union were Germany ($112M), the UK ($78M) and France ($72M), together accounting for 50% of total imports. These countries were followed by the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Spain, Portugal and the Czech Republic, which together accounted for a further 41%.

The Netherlands recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, among the main importing countries over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the wood kitchenware and tableware import price in the European Union amounted to $4,518 per tonne, picking up by 8.2% against the previous year. Over the last eleven years, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.7%. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 an increase of 10% y-o-y. The level of import price peaked in 2018 and is expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Denmark ($6,814 per tonne), while the Czech Republic ($2,322 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 42K tonnes of tableware and kitchenware of wood were exported in the European Union; lowering by -5.4% against the previous year. In general, wood kitchenware and tableware exports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when exports increased by 21% against the previous year. Over the period under review, wood kitchenware and tableware exports reached their peak figure at 49K tonnes in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports remained at a lower figure.

In value terms, wood kitchenware and tableware exports totaled $223M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated a tangible expansion from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +0.8% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, wood kitchenware and tableware exports decreased by -6.0% against 2016 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2014 with an increase of 23% year-to-year. Over the period under review, wood kitchenware and tableware exports reached their peak figure at $238M in 2016; however, from 2017 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Germany (8,014 tonnes), the Netherlands (6,656 tonnes) and Romania (5,687 tonnes) were the major exporters of tableware and kitchenware of wood in the European Union, generating 48% of total export. Poland (3,622 tonnes) held an 8.6% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by Italy (6.2%) and Belgium (5%). Spain (1,844 tonnes), Slovenia (1,652 tonnes), France (1,602 tonnes), Portugal (1,491 tonnes), the Czech Republic (1,276 tonnes) and Sweden (1,206 tonnes) held a little share of total exports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Slovenia, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($39M), the Netherlands ($34M) and Italy ($22M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, together comprising 42% of total exports.

Among the main exporting countries, the Netherlands experienced the highest growth rate of exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the wood kitchenware and tableware export price in the European Union amounted to $5,306 per tonne, therefore, remained relatively stable against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +2.2%. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 an increase of 12% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the export prices for tableware and kitchenware of wood attained their peak figure in 2018 and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Italy ($8,408 per tonne), while Romania ($2,803 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform