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Dairy Spread Market in the EU – Key Insights

dairy

Dairy Spread Market in the EU – Key Insights

IndexBox has just published a new report, the EU – Dairy Spreads – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the dairy spread market in the European Union amounted to $827M in 2017, surging by 18% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2007 to 2017; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017, when it surged by 18% y-o-y. In that year, the dairy spread market attained its peak level, and is likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

Production in the EU

In 2017, approx. 200K tonnes of dairy spreads were produced in the European Union; increasing by 9.1% against the previous year. The dairy spread production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Dairy Spread Exports

Exports in the EU

In 2017, exports of dairy spreads in the European Union stood at 31K tonnes, flattening at the previous year. The dairy spread exports continue to indicate a perceptible curtailment.

In value terms, dairy spread exports stood at $138M (IndexBox estimates) in 2017. The dairy spread exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In that year, dairy spread exports reached their peak of $204M. From 2009 to 2017, the growth of dairy spread exports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

Belgium was the main exporting countries with an export of about 9.5K tonnes, which amounted to 31% of total exports. Poland (4.5K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the global exports with a 15% share, followed by the UK (9.2%), Germany (8.4%), France (8.2%), Ireland (8%), Croatia (6.7%) and the Netherlands (4.8%).

Exports from Belgium decreased at an average annual rate of -2.0% from 2007 to 2017. At the same time, Poland (+31.2%), Croatia (+13.1%), the Netherlands (+5.5%) and France (+5.1%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Poland emerged as the fastest growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +31.2% from 2007-2017. Germany experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. By contrast, Ireland (-4.7%) and the UK (-17.2%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. From 2007 to 2017, the share of the UK, Belgium and Ireland increased by 52%, 7.1% and 5% percentage points, while the Netherlands (-2%), France (-3.2%), Croatia (-4.8%) and Poland (-13.7%) saw their share reduced. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Belgium ($47M) remains the largest dairy spread supplier in the European Union, comprising 34% of global exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Germany ($17M), with a 12% share of global exports. It was followed by Poland, with a 9.3% share.

Export Prices by Country

The dairy spread export price in the European Union stood at $4.5 per kg in 2017, going up by 26% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2017, it increased at an average annual rate of +3.7%.

There were significant differences in the average export prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2017, the country with the highest export price was Germany ($6.5 per kg), while the UK ($2.6 per kg) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2017, the most notable rate of growth in terms of export prices was attained by the Netherlands (+4.9% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Dairy Spread Imports

Imports in the EU

The imports totaled 31K tonnes in 2017, waning by -30.2% against the previous year. The dairy spread imports continue to indicate an abrupt decrease. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2015, when the imports increased by 18% against the previous year. In that year, dairy spread imports reached their peak of 54K tonnes. From 2016 to 2017, the growth of dairy spread imports failed to regain its momentum.

In value terms, dairy spread imports amounted to $120M (IndexBox estimates) in 2017. The dairy spread imports continue to indicate a slight contraction. Over the period under review, dairy spread imports attained their maximum at $167M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2017, imports remained at a lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2017, the UK (7.1K tonnes), distantly followed by Germany (4.6K tonnes), France (2.6K tonnes), Portugal (2.6K tonnes), Slovakia (2.1K tonnes), the Netherlands (1.7K tonnes), Spain (1.5K tonnes) and the Czech Republic (1.4K tonnes) represented the main importers of dairy spreads, together mixed up 77% of total imports. The following importers – Greece (1.3K tonnes), Belgium (1.1K tonnes), Austria (726 tonnes) and Romania (651 tonnes) together made up 12% of total imports.

From 2007 to 2017, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by the Netherlands (+43.7% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($28M), Germany ($17M) and France ($13M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2017, with a combined 48% share of total imports. These countries were followed by Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Slovakia, Greece, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Romania, which together accounted for a further 41%.

Import Prices by Country

In 2017, the dairy spread import price in the European Union amounted to $3.9 per kg, picking up by 15% against the previous year. Over the last decade, it increased at an average annual rate of +3.6%.

Import prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest import price was Austria ($7.3 per kg), while the Netherlands ($2.2 per kg) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2017, the most notable rate of growth in terms of import prices was attained by France (+9.2% per year), while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

EU Citrus Fruit Market Reached to $12B in 2018

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Citrus Fruit – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the citrus fruit market in the European Union amounted to $12B in 2018, increasing by 2.8% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.2% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed in certain years.

The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2008, with an increase of 22% against the previous year. In that year, the citrus fruit market attained its peak level of $12.7B. From 2009 to 2018, the growth of the citrus fruit market remained at a lower figure.

Production in the EU

The citrus fruit production stood at 11M tonnes in 2018, stabilizing at the previous year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit production continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 4.8M tonnes of citrus fruits were exported in the European Union; coming down by -9.1% against the previous year. Overall, citrus fruit exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In value terms, citrus fruit exports stood at $5.1B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Exports by Country

Spain prevails in citrus fruit exports structure, recording 3.2M tonnes, which was approx. 66% of total exports in 2018. It was distantly followed by Greece (357K tonnes), the Netherlands (296K tonnes) and Italy (252K tonnes), together generating 19% share of total exports. Germany (215K tonnes), Portugal (174K tonnes) and France (105K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

Exports from Spain decreased at an average annual rate of -1.3% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Portugal (+16.9%), Germany (+7.3%), Greece (+3.4%) and France (+2.9%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Portugal emerged as the fastest growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +16.9% from 2007-2018. The Netherlands and Italy experienced a relatively flat trend pattern. Spain (10%) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the global exports, while Greece, Germany and Portugal saw its share reduced by -2.3%, -2.4% and -3% from 2007 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, Spain ($3.5B) remains the largest citrus fruit supplier in the European Union, comprising 69% of total citrus fruit exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the Netherlands ($354M), with a 7% share of total exports. It was followed by Germany, with a 5.3% share.

Export Prices by Country

The citrus fruit export price in the European Union stood at $1,046 per tonne in 2018, picking up by 9% against the previous year. Over the period from 2007 to 2018, it increased at an average annual rate of +1.3%. There were significant differences in the average export prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest export price was Germany ($1,245 per tonne), while Greece ($557 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of export prices was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

The imports stood at 6.7M tonnes in 2018, dropping by -6% against the previous year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit imports, however, continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. In value terms, citrus fruit imports totaled $6.3B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of citrus fruit imports in 2018 were France (1.2M tonnes), Germany (1.1M tonnes) and the Netherlands (1.1M tonnes), together reaching 51% of total import. The UK (602K tonnes) took the next position in the ranking, followed by Italy (369K tonnes), Poland (357K tonnes) and Spain (349K tonnes). All these countries together took near 25% share of total imports. Romania (269K tonnes), Portugal (183K tonnes), Sweden (160K tonnes), the Czech Republic (145K tonnes) and Belgium (141K tonnes) occupied a minor share of total imports.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($1.2B), Germany ($1.1B) and the Netherlands ($979M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 52% share of total imports. These countries were followed by the UK, Italy, Poland, Spain, Romania, Sweden, Belgium, Portugal and the Czech Republic, which together accounted for a further 37%.

Import Prices by Country

The citrus fruit import price in the European Union stood at $933 per tonne in 2018, flattening at the previous year. In general, the citrus fruit import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. There were significant differences in the average import prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest import price was Belgium ($1,135 per tonne), while Romania ($745 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of import prices was attained by Sweden, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

soya

European Soya Sauce Market to Keep Growing Modestly in the Near Future

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Soya Sauce – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

In 2018, the revenue of the EU’s soya sauce market reached $704M in 2018. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of soya sauce consumption in 2018 were Germany (28K tonnes), France (20K tonnes) and the UK (19K tonnes), with a combined 44% share of total consumption. The Netherlands, Spain, Poland, Romania, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Ireland lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 41%.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of soya sauce consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Italy, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($400M) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by Spain ($82M). It was followed by Germany.

The countries with the highest levels of soya sauce per capita consumption in 2018 were the Netherlands (928 kg per 1000 persons), Ireland (698 kg per 1000 persons) and Belgium (432 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of soya sauce per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Italy, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

Driven by increasing demand for soya sauce in the European Union, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to decelerate, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +2.0% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 173K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 99K tonnes of soya sauce were produced in the European Union; standing approx. at the previous year. The total output indicated a buoyant expansion from 2008 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.0% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, soya sauce production increased by +38.6% against 2014 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2015 when production volume increased by 22% year-to-year. Over the period under review, soya sauce production reached its maximum volume at 99K tonnes in 2017, leveling off in the following year.

In value terms, soya sauce production totaled $261M in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output indicated perceptible growth from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +4.0% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, soya sauce production increased by +36.0% against 2014 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2017 when production volume increased by 30% y-o-y. The level of soya sauce production peaked in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of soya sauce exported in the European Union amounted to 73K tonnes, picking up by 9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, soya sauce exports continue to indicate strong growth. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 64% y-o-y. Over the period under review, soya sauce exports attained their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, soya sauce exports totaled $167M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated a resilient expansion from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +7.9% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, soya sauce exports increased by +34.4% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2010 when exports increased by 70% year-to-year. Over the period under review, soya sauce exports reached their maximum at $190M in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

The Netherlands prevails in soya sauce exports structure, recording 53K tonnes, which was near 72% of total exports in 2018. The UK (7,195 tonnes) took the second position in the ranking, followed by Germany (3,587 tonnes). All these countries together occupied approx. 15% share of total exports. Poland (2,406 tonnes), Belgium (2,013 tonnes) and Sweden (1,528 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2008 to 2018, average annual rates of growth with regard to soya sauce exports from the Netherlands stood at +9.4%. At the same time, Sweden (+24.0%), the UK (+13.8%), Germany (+4.7%) and Belgium (+3.8%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Sweden emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +24.0% from 2008-2018. By contrast, Poland (-4.2%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. While the share of the Netherlands (+43 p.p.), the UK (+7.1 p.p.), Sweden (+1.8 p.p.) and Germany (+1.8 p.p.) increased significantly in terms of the total exports from 2008-2018, the share of Poland (-1.7 p.p.) displayed negative dynamics. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the Netherlands ($118M) remains the largest soya sauce supplier in the European Union, comprising 71% of total soya sauce exports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the UK ($12M), with a 7.4% share of total exports. It was followed by Germany, with a 6.5% share.

In the Netherlands, soya sauce exports increased at an average annual rate of +6.0% over the period from 2008-2018. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: the UK (+9.0% per year) and Germany (+3.5% per year).

Export Prices by Country

The soya sauce export price in the European Union stood at $2,273 per tonne in 2018, surging by 4.2% against the previous year. Overall, the soya sauce export price, however, continues to indicate a measured curtailment. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when the export price increased by 5.2% year-to-year. The level of export price peaked at $2,978 per tonne in 2011; however, from 2012 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($4,635 per tonne), while Poland ($1,237 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the export price figures.

Imports in the EU

The imports stood at 125K tonnes in 2018, surging by 9.7% against the previous year. The total imports indicated a buoyant expansion from 2008 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +7.7% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, soya sauce imports increased by +110.9% against 2008 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 when imports increased by 17% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, soya sauce imports stood at $240M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total imports indicated a prominent increase from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +7.7% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, soya sauce imports increased by +33.9% against 2015 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 when imports increased by 21% year-to-year. The level of imports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

In 2018, the Netherlands (22K tonnes), the UK (20K tonnes), France (19K tonnes) and Germany (18K tonnes) represented the largest importers of soya sauce in the European Union, constituting 63% of total import. Spain (8,777 tonnes) took a 7% share (based on tonnes) of total imports, which put it in second place, followed by Belgium (5.1%). Italy (5,011 tonnes), Sweden (3,955 tonnes), Poland (3,450 tonnes), Ireland (3,432 tonnes), Finland (2,640 tonnes) and Austria (2,487 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Finland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($38M), Germany ($37M) and the Netherlands ($36M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, together comprising 46% of total imports. These countries were followed by the UK, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, Ireland, Poland, Austria and Finland, which together accounted for a further 46%.

Among the main importing countries, Italy experienced the highest growth rate of imports, over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The soya sauce import price in the European Union stood at $1,919 per tonne in 2018, increasing by 1.7% against the previous year. In general, the soya sauce import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when the import price increased by 5.2% year-to-year. Over the period under review, the import prices for soya sauce reached their maximum at $2,073 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Italy ($2,588 per tonne), while the Netherlands ($1,606 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Sweden, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

cotton bed

EU Cotton Bed Linen Market – Italy, Portugal, and Germany Account for 70% of Total Production

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Bed Linen Of Cotton – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the cotton bed linen market in the European Union is estimated at $10.4B in 2018, an increase of  12% y-o-y. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, bed linen of cotton consumption, however, continues to indicate a strong expansion. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 35% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the bed linen of cotton market reached its peak figure level in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of bed linen of cotton consumption in 2018 were Italy (50K tonnes), Germany (46K tonnes) and France (45K tonnes), together accounting for 53% of total consumption. These countries were followed by the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Belgium, Greece and Denmark, which together accounted for a further 37%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of bed linen of cotton consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Austria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($7.4B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($819M). It was followed by Germany.

The countries with the highest levels of bed linen of cotton per capita consumption in 2018 were Austria (970 kg per 1000 persons), Sweden (882 kg per 1000 persons) and Italy (836 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of bed linen of cotton per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Austria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

The bed linen of cotton market is expected to start a downward consumption trend over the next seven years. The performance of the market is forecast to decrease slightly, with an anticipated CAGR of -0.6% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to depress the market volume to 253K tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in the EU

In 2018, the production of bed linen of cotton in the European Union amounted to 92K tonnes, lowering by -6.1% against the previous year. In general, bed linen of cotton production continues to indicate a moderate descent. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2016 when production volume increased by 9.2% year-to-year. Over the period under review, bed linen of cotton production attained its peak figure volume at 127K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, bed linen of cotton production totaled $957M in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, bed linen of cotton production continues to indicate a drastic downturn. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2010 with an increase of 3.3% y-o-y. Over the period under review, bed linen of cotton production attained its peak figure level at $1.5B in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of bed linen of cotton production in 2018 were Italy (27K tonnes), Portugal (25K tonnes) and Germany (13K tonnes), together accounting for 70% of total production. These countries were followed by Poland, Spain, France and Romania, which together accounted for a further 21%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of bed linen of cotton production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the production figures.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the bed linen of cotton exports in the European Union amounted to 147K tonnes, surging by 7.9% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.6% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when exports increased by 16% year-to-year. The volume of exports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, bed linen of cotton exports amounted to $1.6B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +1.7% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when exports increased by 17% against the previous year. Over the period under review, bed linen of cotton exports attained their maximum at $1.7B in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Germany (33K tonnes), distantly followed by Portugal (19K tonnes), Poland (17K tonnes), Belgium (16K tonnes), the Netherlands (15K tonnes), Italy (7.9K tonnes), France (7.8K tonnes) and Spain (7.4K tonnes) represented the key exporters of bed linen of cotton, together making up 84% of total exports. The Czech Republic (4,375 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest bed linen of cotton markets in the European Union were Germany ($357M), Portugal ($300M) and Belgium ($146M), together accounting for 49% of total exports. Poland, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Spain and the Czech Republic lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 38%.

In terms of the main exporting countries, the Netherlands recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The bed linen of cotton export price in the European Union stood at $11,134 per tonne in 2018, flattening at the previous year. In general, the bed linen of cotton export price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 an increase of 16% year-to-year. In that year, the export prices for bed linen of cotton reached their peak level of $13,796 per tonne. From 2012 to 2018, the growth in terms of the export prices for bed linen of cotton remained at a lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Portugal ($15,547 per tonne), while Poland ($7,852 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Czech Republic, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

The imports stood at 319K tonnes in 2018, increasing by 3.3% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 with an increase of 17% y-o-y. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, bed linen of cotton imports totaled $2.8B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when imports increased by 22% y-o-y. In that year, bed linen of cotton imports reached their peak of $3B. From 2012 to 2018, the growth of bed linen of cotton imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Imports by Country

In 2018, Germany (67K tonnes), France (47K tonnes), the UK (32K tonnes), Italy (31K tonnes), the Netherlands (27K tonnes) and Belgium (24K tonnes) were the largest importers of bed linen of cotton in the European Union, creating 71% of total import. Spain (16K tonnes) ranks next in terms of the total imports with a 4.9% share, followed by Poland (4.8%).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest bed linen of cotton importing markets in the European Union were Germany ($611M), France ($475M) and the UK ($286M), together comprising 48% of total imports. These countries were followed by the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Spain and Poland, which together accounted for a further 32%.

Poland experienced the highest growth rate of imports, among the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the bed linen of cotton import price in the European Union amounted to $8,910 per tonne, standing approx. at the previous year. In general, the bed linen of cotton import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when the import price increased by 28% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for bed linen of cotton attained their peak level of $11,299 per tonne. From 2012 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for bed linen of cotton remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Spain ($10,560 per tonne), while Italy ($6,906 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

european market

European Market for Citrus Fruit Jams and Purees – France Benefits from the Highest Export Price ($4,292 per tonne)

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Citrus Fruit Jams, Marmalades, Jellies, Purees Or Pastes – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The market revenue for citrus fruit preserves (jams, marmalades, jellies, purees, and pastes) in the European Union amounted to $319M in 2018, growing by 8% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). In general, citrus fruit preserves consumption, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 22% against the previous year. The level of citrus fruit preserves consumption peaked at $331M in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of citrus fruit preserves consumption in 2018 were the UK (26K tonnes), Italy (24K tonnes) and Spain (18K tonnes), with a combined 56% share of total consumption. France, the Netherlands, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Romania, Ireland, Poland and Hungary lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 33%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($83M), Italy ($60M) and France ($42M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of market value in 2018, with a combined 58% share of the total market. These countries were followed by Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Romania, Germany, Hungary and Poland, which together accounted for a further 32%.

The countries with the highest levels of citrus fruit preserves per capita consumption in 2018 were Ireland (591 kg per 1000 persons), Italy (412 kg per 1000 persons) and Belgium (410 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 125K tonnes of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes were produced in the European Union; rising by 13% against the previous year. Overall, citrus fruit preserves production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 when production volume increased by 29% y-o-y. The volume of citrus fruit preserves production peaked at 138K tonnes in 2007; however, from 2008 to 2018, production stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves production amounted to $313M in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +1.1% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with somewhat noticeable fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 when production volume increased by 22% against the previous year. In that year, citrus fruit preserves production attained its peak level of $338M. From 2009 to 2018, citrus fruit preserves production growth remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of citrus fruit preserves production in 2018 were the UK (26K tonnes), Spain (24K tonnes) and Italy (24K tonnes), with a combined 59% share of total production. France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, the Czech Republic, Romania, Denmark, Hungary and Poland lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of citrus fruit preserves production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, approx. 36K tonnes of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes were exported in the European Union; surging by 7.5% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.7% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 with an increase of 14% y-o-y. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves exports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves exports stood at $87M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total export value increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 when exports increased by 15% y-o-y. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves exports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

The exports of the eight major exporters of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes, namely Spain, the UK, Germany, France, Denmark, Italy, Belgium and Ireland, represented more than two-thirds of total export.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, France ($19M), the UK ($15M) and Spain ($15M) appeared to be the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, with a combined 55% share of total exports.

In terms of the main exporting countries, Spain recorded the highest growth rate of exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The citrus fruit preserves export price in the European Union stood at $2,436 per tonne in 2018, increasing by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the citrus fruit preserves export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when the export price increased by 15% y-o-y. In that year, the export prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes reached their peak level of $3,042 per tonne. From 2014 to 2018, the growth in terms of the export prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was France ($4,292 per tonne), while Denmark ($1,750 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by France, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes imported in the European Union amounted to 32K tonnes, going up by 11% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 with an increase of 36% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to continue its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, citrus fruit preserves imports stood at $69M (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +1.3% over the period from 2007 to 2018; however, the trend pattern remained consistent, with only minor fluctuations being observed throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when imports increased by 28% year-to-year. Over the period under review, citrus fruit preserves imports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Imports by Country

France (7,472 tonnes) and the UK (6,570 tonnes) represented roughly 43% of total imports of citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes in 2018. Germany (3,454 tonnes) ranks next in terms of the total imports with a 11% share, followed by Italy (9.5%), Ireland (9.1%) and Portugal (6%). Poland (1,196 tonnes), Sweden (1,188 tonnes), Spain (1,175 tonnes), the Netherlands (759 tonnes) and Belgium (565 tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Portugal, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the UK ($14M), France ($13M) and Germany ($10M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 54% share of total imports. Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Sweden, Spain, Belgium, Poland and the Netherlands lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 37%.

Portugal recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, in terms of the main importing countries over the last eleven-year period, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

The citrus fruit preserves import price in the European Union stood at $2,121 per tonne in 2018, approximately mirroring the previous year. Overall, the citrus fruit preserves import price continues to indicate a mild slump. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 7% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the import prices for citrus fruit jams, marmalades, jellies, purees or pastes attained their maximum at $2,824 per tonne in 2013; however, from 2014 to 2018, import prices failed to regain their momentum.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($4,655 per tonne), while Ireland ($1,386 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

trade

Peeling Away Trade Protections for Bananas

Simple in appearance, pleasantly sweet, nutritious, and nearly universal in appeal, that Cavendish bunch of bananas on your counter comes off as pretty unassuming. In reality, it has been through jungle wars and trade wars and now sits on the precipice of extinction. More than half of the bananas traded globally are the Cavendish variety. But with two diseases threatening the world’s largest Cavendish plantations, growing to love more varieties could help save trade in bananas.

Still an Important Cash Crop

Grown in more than 150 countries, bananas are the eighth most important food crop in the world – fourth most important in developing countries. Bananas are among the most traded fruit in the world, generating revenues of more than $8 billion a year for the top banana exporters including Ecuador, the Philippines, Costa Rica, Colombia and Guatemala. However, most are produced for local or national consumption.

For example, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that between 70 and 80 percent of bananas in Africa are produced by smallholder farmers. Around 114 million tons are produced globally beyond what isn’t too small to be counted, yet only 19 million tons were shipped globally. That said, for the top five exporters, bananas are a major contributor to the total value of their agricultural exports. India and China are among the biggest producers but their output mainly serves the large domestic markets.

global bananas trade

Peeling Away Trade Protections

The Banana Wars, centered on the European Union’s (EU) banana trade regime, spanned 20 years as the longest running series of disputes in the multilateral trading system to date (although the Boeing-Airbus dispute may be on track to take that title). As one of the most significant episodes in trade law, the Banana Wars are deserving of more attention, but here are some abridged highlights.

Europe’s banana regime began as an umbrella for complex arrangements at the individual EU Member State level that were designed to offer exclusive or preferential access to former colonies in Africa, Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP), and at the same time shield EU producers from competition.

Under the EU’s original regime, ACP countries received a zero-tariff rate while imports from other countries were taxed at 20 percent. However, each Member State was allowed to “derogate” and maintain special protective provisions for imports from their overseas departments. For example, France set aside two-thirds of its market for Guadeloupe and Martinique and the remaining third for the ACP Franc Zone states of Cameroon and Cote d’Ivoire. The Spanish market was reserved for shipments from the Canary Islands. Greece banned imports to protect its own production in Crete. Only Germany opened to free trade.

The Single European Act of 1986 mandated an integrated EU market by January 1993, which required that Member States consolidate their programs into a common regime for bananas. As devised, this version still enabled members to discriminate among imports by source, offering better terms to their overseas departments and to imports from ACP countries. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Venezuela (supported by the United States) challenged the regime as inconsistent with the EU’s obligations under the GATT.

The EU’s ability to offer tariff preferences was upheld because it had a waiver in the GATT for its general tariff preference program; but the GATT Panel found the EU’s discrimination through tariff quotas to be inconsistent with its obligations. However, prior to the WTO, a GATT member could simply veto the outcome of a panel decision, enabling the EU effectively to ignore the GATT Panel ruling.
EU banana imports

Second Banana

The EU revised its banana regime in 1993 to include new special distribution licenses under a general quota. Licenses were divvied up among primary importers and importers performing secondary activities such as customs clearance, warehousing and storage; licenses were dependent on historical performance, subject to country allocations, market share and other criteria. After yet another challenge by the five Latin American countries, a GATT Panel found in 1994 that the EU’s licensing system was excessively restrictive and not covered by its waiver.

After 1995, with the WTO’s enforceable dispute settlement system in place and additional obligations to avoid discrimination in trade in services, the EU recognized it would face more challenges to its regime. The large multinational producers involved in shipping, warehousing, ripening, marketing and distribution had an even stronger case to make. The EU negotiated with all of the disgruntled Latin American producers but Guatemala to head off the legal challenge. Having offered additional or expanded quotas, they temporarily pleased some countries but further worsened the discriminatory effect for those countries not a part of the negotiation.

A third complaint against the EU’s banana regime was reviewed in the WTO in 1996, this time with the United States as the lead plaintiff in response to complaints from Chiquita and the Hawaiian Banana Association. A WTO decision in 1997 again concluded that, although the EU’s discriminatory tariffs were covered under its historical waiver, its tariff quota allocations and convoluted import licensing administration violated its WTO obligations. The EU’s next version of its banana regime did little to remedy the discriminatory elements, which led to the imposition of tariffs by the United States and Ecuador in response to the EU’s failure to comply with the WTO ruling. By 2001, the EU made another attempt to transition its system, but not until 2006 would the EU decide to phase in a tariff-only system, dispensing with quotas.

Banana Splits

At the end of 2009, after negotiations with non-ACP producers, the EU agreed to reduce the tariff rate it applies to all WTO members. Tariffs would come down from 176 euros per ton to 114 euros per ton by January 2017 (stipulating it could revert to higher rates if exporting countries exceed a “trigger” amount of imports). It wouldn’t be until 2012, that the EU and 10 Latin American countries finalized signed an agreement in the WTO to codify the revised EU banana tariff schedule (“The Geneva Banana Agreement”), officially closing the longstanding legal disputes.

As a prologue, the EU signed trade agreements with Andean and Central American countries in 2013 and Ecuador in 2017. Ecuador has seen a large bump in global export volume as its agreement with the EU is implemented. By next year, the tariff on bananas from Ecuador to the EU will go down to 75 euros per ton with no quota on the amount eligible for this rate. As the EU continues to edge toward “freer” trade in bananas, the ACP producers will face considerable adjustment.

2009 Geneva Banana Agreement

Going Bananas

Having survived the banana trade wars, the popular Cavendish banana faces a new challenge, one that could actually wipe them out.

“Panama disease TR4” has ravaged thousands of acres of Cavendish plantations throughout Southeast Asia and Australia and is spreading to Africa and the Middle East. It can lie dormant in soil for decades and has proven resistant to fungicides and fumigants. It is only a matter of time before TR4 takes hold in Latin America, which supplies nearly the entire U.S. market. Banana plantations in the Caribbean are threatened by another disease called Black Sigatoka, which has been reducing banana yields by 40 percent every year in affected areas.

Before Cavendish was top banana, a banana called the Gros Michel (Big Mike) dominated the banana trade in the early 1900s until the fungus TR1 took it to the brink of extinction in the mid-1950s. At that time, the Cavendish variety from China was discovered to be resistant to TR1 so it replaced Mike. But bananas don’t have seeds. They breed asexually so they cannot recombine their genes to ward off threats. In other words, the Cavendish is ripe for attack because it cannot evolve – every generation is a clone of the previous.

Try Hanging with a New Bunch

If scientists don’t make a breakthrough, TR4 and TR1 could spell the end for the beloved Cavendish. With over 1,000 different varieties of bananas growing around the world, why not get to know some others that might grow more popular through trade – here are a few to get you started.

For your next dessert, try using Niño, Manzano (“apple bananas”) that have a hint of apple and strawberry flavor, or Goldfinger, a newer variety from Honduras. Intriguingly, there’s also Blue Java, named for its blue skin, which has a creamy, ice cream-like texture and purportedly offers a subtle vanilla flavor.

Cooking bananas include the Macho plantain and other fun-sounding varieties like the Burro which has squared sides and a lemon flavor when ripe, and the Rhino Horn from Africa, which can grow up to two feet long. If consumers demand it, perhaps global trade in bananas will finally branch out.

_________________________________________________________________________

Andrea Durkin is the Editor-in-Chief of TradeVistas and Founder of Sparkplug, LLC. Ms. Durkin previously served as a U.S. Government trade negotiator and has proudly taught international trade policy and negotiations for the last fourteen years as an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University’s Master of Science in Foreign Service program.

This article originally appeared on TradeVistas.org. Republished with permission.

 

cheese

European Fresh Cheese Market – Italy’s Output Doubled Over the Last Five Years

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Fresh Cheese – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the fresh cheese market in the European Union amounted to $12.6B in 2018, remaining stable against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Overall, fresh cheese consumption continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2014 with an increase of 15% against the previous year. Over the period under review, the fresh cheese market attained its maximum level at $14B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption remained at a lower figure.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of fresh cheese consumption in 2018 were Italy (967K tonnes), France (585K tonnes) and Germany (548K tonnes), together accounting for 52% of total consumption. These countries were followed by the UK, Poland, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Sweden, which together accounted for a further 37%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of fresh cheese consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Italy ($3.8B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by the UK ($1.7B). It was followed by France.

The countries with the highest levels of fresh cheese per capita consumption in 2018 were Italy (16,290 kg per 1000 persons), Belgium (13,307 kg per 1000 persons) and Poland (10,450 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of fresh cheese per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

Driven by increasing demand for fresh cheese in the European Union, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to decelerate, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +0.7% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 4.3M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in the EU

In 2018, approx. 4.4M tonnes of fresh cheese were produced in the European Union; going up by 1.6% against the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.1% over the period from 2007 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2017 when production volume increased by 11% y-o-y. Over the period under review, fresh cheese production attained its peak figure volume in 2018 and is likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fresh cheese production amounted to $11.2B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Over the period under review, fresh cheese production continues to indicate a mild shrinkage. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2014 with an increase of 15% y-o-y. Over the period under review, fresh cheese production attained its peak figure level at $14.3B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, production remained at a lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of fresh cheese production in 2018 were Germany (928K tonnes), Italy (927K tonnes) and France (688K tonnes), with a combined 58% share of total production. Poland, the UK, Denmark, Belgium, Spain and Lithuania lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 32%.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of fresh cheese production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Belgium, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the fresh cheese exports in the European Union totaled 1.6M tonnes, growing by 2.1% against the previous year. The total exports indicated resilient growth from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +6.1% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese exports increased by +91.0% against 2007 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 with an increase of 11% against the previous year. Over the period under review, fresh cheese exports attained their maximum in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fresh cheese exports amounted to $5.6B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated remarkable growth from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +6.1% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese exports increased by +30.3% against 2015 indices. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2011 when exports increased by 23% y-o-y. Over the period under review, fresh cheese exports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

Germany was the largest exporting country with an export of about 516K tonnes, which resulted at 32% of total exports. It was distantly followed by France (221K tonnes), Denmark (183K tonnes), Italy (181K tonnes), Poland (96K tonnes) and Belgium (86K tonnes), together achieving a 48% share of total exports. The UK (67K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

Exports from Germany increased at an average annual rate of +5.5% from 2007 to 2018. At the same time, Belgium (+15.3%), Poland (+7.9%), Italy (+6.9%), Denmark (+6.4%), the UK (+5.9%) and France (+2.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Belgium emerged as the fastest-growing exporter in the European Union, with a CAGR of +15.3% from 2007-2018. From 2007 to 2018, the share of Germany, Italy, Denmark, Belgium, Poland, France and the UK increased by +14%, +5.9%, +5.7%, +4.3%, +3.4%, +3% and +2% percentage points, while the shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the largest fresh cheese markets in the European Union were Germany ($1.6B), Italy ($964M) and Denmark ($638M), with a combined 58% share of total exports. France, Belgium, Poland and the UK lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 25%.

In terms of the main exporting countries, Belgium experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The fresh cheese export price in the European Union stood at $3,504 per tonne in 2018, picking up by 2.4% against the previous year. In general, the fresh cheese export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2008 an increase of 18% y-o-y. In that year, the export prices for fresh cheese reached their peak level of $4,179 per tonne. From 2009 to 2018, the growth in terms of the export prices for fresh cheese failed to regain its momentum.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Italy ($5,330 per tonne), while France ($2,660 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the export price figures.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of fresh cheese imported in the European Union stood at 1.3M tonnes, increasing by 5.4% against the previous year. The total imports indicated remarkable growth from 2007 to 2018: its volume increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% over the last eleven-year period. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese imports increased by +76.1% against 2007 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 10% against the previous year. The volume of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

In value terms, fresh cheese imports amounted to $4.4B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total imports indicated a strong increase from 2007 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +5.3% over the last eleven years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, fresh cheese imports increased by +29.3% against 2016 indices. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 with an increase of 21% year-to-year. The level of imports peaked in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of fresh cheese imports in 2018 were Italy (221K tonnes), the UK (189K tonnes), Germany (137K tonnes), the Netherlands (127K tonnes), France (118K tonnes), Spain (95K tonnes) and Belgium (77K tonnes), together resulting at 74% of total import. Austria (39K tonnes), Poland (33K tonnes), Romania (33K tonnes), the Czech Republic (26K tonnes) and Ireland (25K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Ireland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest fresh cheese importing markets in the European Union were Italy ($778M), the UK ($573M) and Germany ($507M), with a combined 42% share of total imports. France, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Poland, Romania, Ireland and the Czech Republic lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 44%.

In terms of the main importing countries, Poland experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, over the last eleven years, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the fresh cheese import price in the European Union amounted to $3,409 per tonne, rising by 3.7% against the previous year. Overall, the fresh cheese import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2008 an increase of 17% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for fresh cheese attained their peak level of $3,996 per tonne. From 2009 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for fresh cheese failed to regain its momentum.

Average prices varied somewhat amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, major importing countries recorded the following prices: in France ($3,885 per tonne) and Austria ($3,750 per tonne), while the Netherlands ($2,750 per tonne) and the UK ($3,029 per tonne) were amongst the lowest.

From 2007 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

dog and cat food

EU Dog And Cat Food Market Is Set to Reach 9.6M Tonnes by 2025

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Dog And Cat Food – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The revenue of the dog and cat food market in the European Union amounted to $12.1B in 2018, surging by 3.6% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). The market value increased at an average annual rate of +1.1% over the period from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being observed over the period under review. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2013 when the market value increased by 8.1% year-to-year. In that year, the dog and cat food market attained its peak level of $12.6B. From 2014 to 2018, the growth of the dog and cat food market remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of dog and cat food consumption in 2018 were the UK (1.5M tonnes), France (1.3M tonnes) and Germany (1.3M tonnes), together accounting for 45% of total consumption. Spain, Italy, Poland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Belgium, Romania and Hungary lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 42%.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of dog and cat food consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Romania, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest dog and cat food markets in the European Union were the UK ($2.7B), France ($2.3B) and Germany ($2B), together accounting for 57% of the total market. These countries were followed by Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands, Poland, Belgium, Hungary, Portugal and Romania, which together accounted for a further 32%.

The countries with the highest levels of dog and cat food per capita consumption in 2018 were Sweden (32 kg per person), Portugal (31 kg per person) and Hungary (25 kg per person).

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of dog and cat food per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Romania, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Market Forecast 2019-2025 in the EU

Driven by increasing demand for dog and cat food in the European Union, the market is expected to continue an upward consumption trend over the next seven-year period. Market performance is forecast to retain its current trend pattern, expanding with an anticipated CAGR of +1.1% for the seven-year period from 2018 to 2025, which is projected to bring the market volume to 9.6M tonnes by the end of 2025.

Production in the EU

In 2018, the production of dog and cat food in the European Union stood at 9.8M tonnes, flattening at the previous year. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +1.8% from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2010 with an increase of 4.1% against the previous year. Over the period under review, dog and cat food production attained its peak figure volume at 9.8M tonnes in 2017, leveling off in the following year.

In value terms, dog and cat food production amounted to $13.1B in 2018 estimated in export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +1.4% from 2008 to 2018; the trend pattern remained relatively stable, with only minor fluctuations being recorded over the period under review. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when production volume increased by 13% against the previous year. In that year, dog and cat food production attained its peak level of $13.6B. From 2014 to 2018, dog and cat food production growth remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of dog and cat food production in 2018 were France (1.8M tonnes), Germany (1.4M tonnes) and the UK (1.2M tonnes), with a combined 45% share of total production. Spain, Hungary, the Netherlands, Italy and Poland lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 37%.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of dog and cat food production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of dog and cat food exported in the European Union amounted to 5.5M tonnes, increasing by 2.9% against the previous year. The total export volume increased at an average annual rate of +4.0% over the period from 2008 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2017 when exports increased by 9% against the previous year. The volume of exports peaked in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, dog and cat food exports stood at $9.2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total exports indicated a strong expansion from 2008 to 2018: its value increased at an average annual rate of +4.0% over the last decade. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on 2018 figures, dog and cat food exports increased by +29.5% against 2015 indices. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 16% year-to-year. Over the period under review, dog and cat food exports reached their maximum in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the immediate term.

Exports by Country

In 2018, Germany (829K tonnes), France (807K tonnes), the Netherlands (572K tonnes), Poland (527K tonnes) and Hungary (517K tonnes) were the main exporters of dog and cat food in the European Union, comprising 59% of total export. It was distantly followed by Spain (323K tonnes), Ireland (309K tonnes), the UK (272K tonnes), the Czech Republic (266K tonnes), Belgium (260K tonnes) and Italy (252K tonnes), together comprising a 31% share of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, the largest dog and cat food markets in the European Union were Germany ($1.8B), France ($1.5B) and the Netherlands ($1.1B), together comprising 48% of total exports. Poland, Belgium, Hungary, the UK, the Czech Republic, Italy, Ireland and Spain lagged somewhat behind, together accounting for a further 41%.

Poland recorded the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, in terms of the main exporting countries over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

The dog and cat food export price in the European Union stood at $1,668 per tonne in 2018, going up by 7.5% against the previous year. Overall, the dog and cat food export price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 an increase of 11% against the previous year. The level of export price peaked at $1,730 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major exporting countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Germany ($2,124 per tonne), while Spain ($885 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Czech Republic, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Imports in the EU

The imports totaled 4.6M tonnes in 2018, surging by 2.7% against the previous year. The total import volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.9% over the period from 2008 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2012 with an increase of 8.1% y-o-y. Over the period under review, dog and cat food imports attained their peak figure in 2018 and are expected to retain its growth in the near future.

In value terms, dog and cat food imports totaled $7.7B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. The total import value increased at an average annual rate of +3.6% from 2008 to 2018; however, the trend pattern indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded in certain years. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2017 when imports increased by 14% against the previous year. Over the period under review, dog and cat food imports reached their peak figure in 2018 and are likely to see steady growth in the near future.

Imports by Country

The countries with the highest levels of dog and cat food imports in 2018 were Germany (646K tonnes), the UK (528K tonnes), Belgium (392K tonnes), France (374K tonnes), Italy (342K tonnes), Poland (290K tonnes), the Netherlands (288K tonnes), Austria (251K tonnes), Spain (196K tonnes), Romania (186K tonnes) and Portugal (179K tonnes), together resulting at 79% of total import. Greece (109K tonnes) held a little share of total imports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of imports, amongst the main importing countries, was attained by Romania, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Germany ($1.3B), the UK ($878M) and France ($638M) were the countries with the highest levels of imports in 2018, with a combined 36% share of total imports. Italy, Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Romania and Greece lagged somewhat behind, together comprising a further 45%.

Among the main importing countries, Poland experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to imports, over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the dog and cat food import price in the European Union amounted to $1,654 per tonne, rising by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the dog and cat food import price continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2011 when the import price increased by 11% y-o-y. The level of import price peaked at $1,718 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, import prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

There were significant differences in the average prices amongst the major importing countries. In 2018, the country with the highest price was Germany ($1,976 per tonne), while Romania ($874 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

pork

EU Salt Pork Market Is Estimated at $5.2B

IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘EU – Pig Meat Salted (Salted, In Brine, Dried Or Smoked) – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends And Insights’. Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.

The market size for preserved pork in the European Union is estimated at $5.2B (2018), an increase of 3.5% against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers’ margins, which will be included in the final consumer price).

Over the period under review, preserved pork consumption, however, continues to indicate a temperate setback. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 5.6% against the previous year. The level of preserved pork consumption peaked at $6.8B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, consumption failed to regain its momentum.

Consumption By Country in the EU

The UK (419K tonnes) constituted the country with the largest volume of preserved pork consumption, accounting for 39% of total consumption. Moreover, preserved pork consumption in the UK exceeded the figures recorded by the region’s second-largest consumer, Germany (116K tonnes), fourfold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Italy (94K tonnes), with a 8.8% share.

From 2008 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of volume in the UK totaled -2.7%. In the other countries, the average annual rates were as follows: Germany (-5.0% per year) and Italy (+6.8% per year).

In value terms, the UK ($1.9B) led the market, alone. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($748M). It was followed by Germany.

The countries with the highest levels of preserved pork per capita consumption in 2018 were Ireland (12,561 kg per 1000 persons), the UK (6,284 kg per 1000 persons) and Romania (2,789 kg per 1000 persons).

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of preserved pork per capita consumption, amongst the main consuming countries, was attained by Austria, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Production in the EU

In 2018, the amount of pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) produced in the European Union totaled 1.1M tonnes, remaining constant against the previous year. Over the period under review, preserved pork production, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2009 with an increase of 11% y-o-y. In that year, preserved pork production attained its peak volume of 1.3M tonnes. From 2010 to 2018, preserved pork production growth remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, preserved pork production stood at $4.8B in 2018 estimated in export prices. Overall, preserved pork production, however, continues to indicate a measured setback. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 with an increase of 6.8% year-to-year. The level of preserved pork production peaked at $6.4B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, production failed to regain its momentum.

Production By Country in the EU

The countries with the highest volumes of preserved pork production in 2018 were the UK (247K tonnes), Germany (151K tonnes) and Italy (141K tonnes), with a combined 48% share of total production.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of preserved pork production, amongst the main producing countries, was attained by Italy, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Exports in the EU

In 2018, the preserved pork exports in the European Union totaled 398K tonnes, stabilizing at the previous year. In general, preserved pork exports continue to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2016 with an increase of 5.7% y-o-y. The volume of exports peaked at 423K tonnes in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, exports stood at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, preserved pork exports totaled $2.2B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. Over the period under review, preserved pork exports continue to indicate a slight descent. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2011 when exports increased by 8.1% year-to-year. The level of exports peaked at $2.4B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, exports failed to regain their momentum.

Exports by Country

In 2018, the Netherlands (98K tonnes), distantly followed by Italy (60K tonnes), Germany (58K tonnes), Denmark (55K tonnes), Spain (50K tonnes), Poland (31K tonnes) and the UK (18K tonnes) were the major exporters of pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked), together committing 93% of total exports.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of exports, amongst the main exporting countries, was attained by Poland, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

In value terms, Italy ($648M), Spain ($423M) and the Netherlands ($292M) constituted the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2018, with a combined 63% share of total exports.

Spain experienced the highest rates of growth with regard to exports, in terms of the main exporting countries over the last decade, while the other leaders experienced more modest paces of growth.

Export Prices by Country

In 2018, the preserved pork export price in the European Union amounted to $5,399 per tonne, remaining relatively unchanged against the previous year. Overall, the preserved pork export price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The most prominent rate of growth was recorded in 2013 when the export price increased by 6.7% y-o-y. Over the period under review, the export prices for pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) attained their peak figure at $6,151 per tonne in 2014; however, from 2015 to 2018, export prices stood at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of origin; the country with the highest price was Italy ($10,792 per tonne), while Denmark ($2,876 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by Spain, while the other leaders experienced a decline in the export price figures.

Imports in the EU

In 2018, the amount of pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) imported in the European Union totaled 339K tonnes, going up by 1.9% against the previous year. Over the period under review, preserved pork imports, however, continue to indicate a temperate slump. The pace of growth was the most pronounced in 2010 with an increase of 48% y-o-y. In that year, preserved pork imports attained their peak of 433K tonnes. From 2011 to 2018, the growth of preserved pork imports remained at a somewhat lower figure.

In value terms, preserved pork imports stood at $1.8B (IndexBox estimates) in 2018. In general, preserved pork imports, however, continue to indicate a temperate setback. The growth pace was the most rapid in 2013 with an increase of 10% against the previous year. The level of imports peaked at $2.3B in 2008; however, from 2009 to 2018, imports failed to regain their momentum.

Imports by Country

The UK prevails in preserved pork imports structure, accounting for 190K tonnes, which was approx. 56% of total imports in 2018. France (34K tonnes) ranks second in terms of the total imports with a 10% share, followed by Germany (7%) and Ireland (4.9%). The following importers – Italy (13,638 tonnes), Austria (8,514 tonnes), Denmark (8,242 tonnes), Belgium (8,025 tonnes) and the Netherlands (5,643 tonnes) – together made up 13% of total imports.

From 2008 to 2018, average annual rates of growth with regard to preserved pork imports into the UK stood at -4.0%. At the same time, Austria (+9.6%), France (+3.5%), Germany (+3.0%), Italy (+2.3%) and Ireland (+2.2%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Austria emerged as the fastest-growing importer in the European Union, with a CAGR of +9.6% from 2008-2018. By contrast, Belgium (-1.6%), Denmark (-5.5%) and the Netherlands (-8.0%) illustrated a downward trend over the same period. France (+2.9 p.p.), Germany (+1.8 p.p.) and Austria (+1.5 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the total imports, while Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK saw its share reduced by -1.9%, -2.2% and -27.9% from 2008 to 2018, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.

In value terms, the UK ($634M) constitutes the largest market for imported pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) in the European Union, comprising 36% of total preserved pork imports. The second position in the ranking was occupied by France ($280M), with a 16% share of total imports. It was followed by Germany, with a 14% share.

In the UK, preserved pork imports shrank by an average annual rate of -6.5% over the period from 2008-2018. The remaining importing countries recorded the following average annual rates of imports growth: France (+1.7% per year) and Germany (+1.6% per year).

Import Prices by Country

In 2018, the preserved pork import price in the European Union amounted to $5,220 per tonne, jumping by 2.5% against the previous year. Overall, the preserved pork import price, however, continues to indicate a relatively flat trend pattern. The pace of growth appeared the most rapid in 2009 an increase of 22% against the previous year. In that year, the import prices for pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) reached their peak level of $6,609 per tonne. From 2010 to 2018, the growth in terms of the import prices for pig meat salted (salted, in brine, dried or smoked) remained at a somewhat lower figure.

Prices varied noticeably by the country of destination; the country with the highest price was Belgium ($11,387 per tonne), while the UK ($3,331 per tonne) was amongst the lowest.

From 2008 to 2018, the most notable rate of growth in terms of prices was attained by the Netherlands, while the other leaders experienced mixed trends in the import price figures.

Source: IndexBox AI Platform

Goods

Is Your Supply Chain Prepared for Potential U.S. Tariffs on EU Goods?

Transatlantic tariffs came closer to reality in recent months after the United States Trade Representative (USTR) proposed tariffs on a list of products from the European Union (EU). 

Unfortunately, even if you’ve already gone through something similar with goods imported from China, the same strategy may not be effective for the tariffs on EU goods. This is due in large part to the types of proposed commodities from the EU.

The good news is there are things you can do today to adjust your import strategy to maintain compliance while insulating your company from the proposed tariffs.

Up to $25 billion worth of EU goods at stake

The USTR announcements in April and July proposed tariffs targeting up to $25 billion worth of goods. This includes items such as new aircraft and aircraft parts, foods ranging from seafood and meat to cheese and pasta, wine and whiskey, and even ceramics and cleaning chemicals. 

To date, the USTR has only provided a preliminary commodity list for the proposed U.S. tariffs on EU goods. No percentages have been announced, leaving many to wonder if the tariffs will be manageable—in the 5-10% range—or more substantial, like the 25% tariffs applied to China imports. 

On top of the tariffs, when the French Senate announced a 3% tax on revenue from digital services earned in France, President Trump threatened a counter-tax on French wine. But it’s unclear if this tax will come to fruition or fizzle out—especially since the USTR’s tariff list already includes many types of wine. 

5 key questions to insulate your supply chain

Looking for the best way to prepare your business from the potential tariff increases? Answering these key questions may help you adapt and insulate your company. 

-Do you have a plan to cover the costs? 

You may not be able to avoid paying the tariffs, but there are various strategies you may consider to help cover their costs. 

While not ideal, you could increase prices to end consumers. It may not be feasible to recover the entire cost of an added tariff, but you can at least offset a small portion of the tariff this way.

You can also adjust the cost of the goods with suppliers and manufacturers to cover a portion of the tariff. Just remember: pricing changes still need to meet the valuation regulations with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). 

-Will you need to increase your customs bond? 

The smallest customs bond an importer can hold is $50,000. That used to be enough for many importers to cover generally 10% of the duties and taxes you expect to pay CBP. 

Unfortunately, as many importers from China are learning, a 25% tariff on products can quickly exceed your bond amount. And bond insufficiency can shut down all your imports while resulting in delays and added expenses. 

To help avoid bond insufficiency, consider any increased duty amounts in advance of your next bond renewal period. And don’t wait to do this until the last minute, because raising your customs bond with your surety company can take up to four weeks. 

-Do you re-export goods brought into the U.S.? 

Duty drawback programs can’t be used by every importer. But if you can take advantage of them, they can result in big savings for your company.

In fact, you can get back 99% of certain import duties, taxes, and fees on imported goods that you re-export out of the U.S. Just be aware that you still need to pay the duties up front. And you might need to wait up to two years to get your refund. 

-Are your product classifications current and accurate?

With potential tariffs looming, consider reviewing your product classifications and make sure they’re accurate. If you find an issue, discuss it with your broker or customs counsel to discuss how you can properly rectify the issue, and avoid penalties from doing it incorrectly.

And while we’re on the topic of product classifications, never change them to evade tariffs. CBP will be on the lookout for this kind of activity, and the penalties for noncompliance can be steep.

-Do you have the support you need?

Changing your customs brokers may not sound appealing, but ensuring they provide all the services you need to stay compliant should be your top priority when working with them.

Your provider should help make sure you pay the appropriate duty rates for your products. And they should have people and services available globally to support your freight wherever it is located throughout the world. 

Also, consider simplifying your support by working with one provider that offers not only customs brokerage and trade compliance services but also global ocean and air freight logistics services. 

If you only employ one strategy…

Discuss your import strategy with your customs attorney or customs compliance expert. Bringing in specialized expertise is the most effective way to analyze how these tariffs could affect your products, your supply chain, and your business. 

If you don’t yet have a customs broker who can meet all your needs in today’s changing environment, consider C.H. Robinson’s customs compliance services. With over 100 licensed customs brokers in North America, and a Trusted Advisor® approach, our experts are ready to help.

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Ben Bidwell serves as the Director of U.S. Customs at  C.H. Robinson